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from joints and muscles help this knowledge. The outside world commences to separate itself from the "me,"
though both are vague and shadowy. Soon it learns that one part of the outside world is able to satisfy its
hunger, to supply a need, and it commences to recognize the existence of benevolent outside agencies; and it
also learns little by little that its instinctive cries bring these agencies to it. I do not mean that the baby has any
internal language corresponding to the idea of outside agency, benevolence, etc., but it gets to know that its
cries are potent, that a breast brings relief and satisfaction. At first it cries, the breast comes, there is relief and
satisfaction, and it makes no connection or no connection is made between these events of outer and inner
origin. But the connection is finally made,--desire becomes definitely articulate in the cry of the baby, which
thus becomes a plea and a summons. Anticipation of good to come appears and with it the germ of hope and
forward looking, and there is realization or disappointment, joy or anger or sorrow. Thus desire is linked up
with satisfaction in a definite way, ideas and feelings of demand and supply begin to appear and perhaps
power itself, in the vague notion, "I can get milk," commences to be felt. Social life starts when the child
associates the mother with the milk, with the desire and the satisfaction. In the relationship established
between mother and baby is the first great social contact; love, friendship, discipline, teaching and belief have
their origin when, at the mother's breast, the child separates its mother from the rest of the things of the world.
And not only in the relief of hunger is the mother active, but she gets to be associated with the relief from wet
and irritating clothes, the pleasant bath, and the pleasure of the change of position that babies cry for. Her
bosom and her arms become sources of pleasure, and the race has immortalized them as symbolic of
motherhood, in song, in story and in myth.
Not only does he associate the mother with the milk but her very presence brings him comfort, even when he
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- Spring '11