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Unformatted text preview: of the ego feeling which gives to some
the vigor and unyieldingness of their conscience. "I am right," says such a person, "and the rest of the world is CHAPTER II. 25 wrong. God is with me, my conscience and future times will agree," thus appealing to the distant tribunal as
James pointed out. All the insane hospitals have their sufferers for conscience's sake, paranoid personalities
whose egos have expanded to infallibility and whose consciences are correspondingly developed.
Conscience thus represents the power of the permanent purposes and ideals of the individuals, and it wars on
the less permanent desires and impulses, because there is in memory the uneasiness and anxiety that resulted
from indulgence and the pain of the feeling of inferiority that results when one is hiding a secret weakness or
undergoing reproof or punishment. This group of permanent purposes, ideals and aspirations corresponds
closely to the censor of the Freudian concept and here is an example where a new name successfully disguises
an age-old thought.
In other words, conscience is social in its origin, developing differently in different people according to their
teaching, intelligence, will, ego-feeling, instincts, etc. From the standpoint of character analysis there are
many types of people in regard to conscience development.
In respect to the reactions to praise and blame the following types are conspicuous:
1. A "weak" group in whom these act as apparently the sole motives.
2. A group energized by love of praise.
3. A group energized mainly by fear of blame.
4. A type that scorns anything but material reward.
5. Another, that "takes advantage" of reward; likes praise but is merely made conceited by it, hates blame but
is merely made angry by it, fears punishment and finds its main goad to good conduct in this fear.
6. Then there are those in whom all these motives operate in greater or lesser degree,--the so-called normal
person. In reality he has his specia...
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- Spring '11