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Unformatted text preview: l with these as
organic, as arising in the sensitized individual as a result of environmental forces, as manifestations of a life
which is as yet--and perhaps always will be--mysterious to us. We shall best consider these manifestations of
mental activity as an interplay of the reactions of stimulation, inhibition, choice, organizing energy, and not as
separate and totally different matters. We shall see that probably emotion is one aspect of reaction to the
world, while instinct is merely another aspect; that intelligence is a cerebral shift of instinct, and that will is no
unity but the energy of instincts and purposes.
Before we go farther we must squarely face a problem of human thought. Man, since he started reflecting
about himself, has been puzzled about his consciousness. How can a person be aware of himself, and what
identifies and links together each phase of consciousness? There is an enormous range of thought on this
subject: from those who identified consciousness as the only reality and considered what the average person
holds as realities--things and people--as only phases of consciousness, to those who, like Huxley, regard
consciousness as an "epi-pbenomenon," a sort of overture to brain activity and having nothing whatever to do
with action, nothing to do with choice and plan, so that, as Lloyd Morgan points out, "An unconscious
Shakespeare writes plays acted by an unconscious troupe of actors to an unconscious audience." The first
extreme view, that of Berkeley and the idealists, nullifies all other realities save that of the individual thinker
and reduces one to the absurdities of Solipsism where a man writes books to convince persons conjured up by
himself and having no existence outside of himself; the other view nullifies that which seems to each of us the
very essence of himself.
I shall take a very simple view of consciousness, simply because I shall deliberately dodge the great
difficulties. Consciousness is the result of the activities of a group of mo...
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- Spring '11