79119 - T i t l e T h i n k i n g S t y l e s : t h e i r r...

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Unformatted text preview: T i t l e T h i n k i n g S t y l e s : t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e A u t h o r ( s ) Z h a n g , L F C i t a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 2 , v . 2 2 n I s s u e D a t e 2 2 U R L h t t p : / / h d l . h a n d l e . n e t / 1 7 2 2 / 4 3 5 2 8 R i g h t s Educational Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2002 Thinking Styles: their relationships with modes of thinking and academic performance LI-FANG ZHANG, The University of Hong Kong ABSTRACT This study aimed at investigating the nature of thinking styles as described in the theory of mental self-government. Two-hundred-and-twelve US university students re- sponded to the Thinking Styles Inventory and the Styles of Learning and Thinking. Results from convergent statistical analysis procedures indicated that thinking styles and modes of thinking share certain common variance in the data. It was evident that the more creativity- generating and more complex thinking styles are signi cantly related to a holistic mode of thinking, and that the more norm-conforming and more simplistic thinking styles are signi cantly related to an analytic mode of thinking. Furthermore, multiple-regression analyses showed that both thinking styles and modes of thinking statistically contributed to students’ self-reported grade point averages beyond what was explained by their self-rated ability scores. These ndings are discussed in terms of practical implications for educators. Research (e.g. Sternberg & Williams, 1997) has indicated that academic abilities and traditional achievement tests can account for only a minimal amount of individual-dif- ferences variation in academic achievement. Indeed, the impact of non-academically related factors on academic achievement has also been investigated by many re- searchers. These factors vary from learning motivation (e.g. Horn et al. , 1993, Dev, 1997), to self-esteem (e.g. Overwalle et al. , 1995, Leondari et al. , 1998), and to home and family support (e.g. Cutrona et al. , 1994, Chen et al. , 1996). Style, as an individual-difference variable in academic achievement, also has been studied extensively. This research suggested that students’ styles of learning and thinking do make a difference in academic achievement (e.g. Kim & Michael, 1995; Saracho, 1993). In the study of styles, many theoretical models have been postulated since the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the 1980s and 1990s, some scholars conceptu- ally integrated these stylistic models. For example, Curry (1983) proposed a three-layer ‘onion’ model of style measures. Riding & Cheema (1991) contended that the style- based work be organised along two style-dimensions and one family of learning ISSN 0144-3410 print; ISSN 1469-046X online/02/030331-18 Ó 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd DOI: 10.1080/01443410220138557 332 L-F. Zhang strategies (also see Riding & Rayner, 1998). Grigorenko & Sternberg (1995) have classi ed the various theories of styles into...
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79119 - T i t l e T h i n k i n g S t y l e s : t h e i r r...

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