Cognit Ther Res. 2009 August; 33(4): 345–355.
Published online 2009 January 20. doi:
© The Author(s) 2009
Measuring Dysfunctional Attitudes in the General Population: The
Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (form A) Revised
L. Esther de Graaf,
Jeffrey Roelofs, and Marcus J. H. Huibers
Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University,
P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
L. Esther de Graaf, Phone: +31-43-3881613, Fax: +31-43-3884155,
Email: E.deGraaf/at/dmkep.unimaas.nl .
Received September 26, 2007; Accepted January 6, 2009.
The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was designed to measure the
intensity of dysfunctional attitudes, a hallmark feature of depression.
Various exploratory factor analytic studies of the DAS form A (DAS-A)
yielded mixed results. The current study was set up to compare the fit of
various factor models. We used a large community sample (
test the previously proposed factor models of the DAS-A using
confirmatory factor analysis. The retained model of the DAS-A was
subjected to reliability and validity analyses. All models showed good fit
to the data. Finally, a two-factor solution of the DAS-A was retained,
consisting of 17 items. The factors demonstrated good reliability and
convergent construct validity. Significant associations were found with
depression. Norm-scores were presented. We advocate the use of a 17-
item DAS-A, which proved to be useful in measuring dysfunctional
beliefs. On the basis of previous psychometric studies, our study provides
solid evidence for a two-factor model of the DAS-A, consisting of
‘dependency’ and ‘perfectionism/performance evaluation’.
Keywords: Dysfunctional attitude scale, Depression, General population,
Psychometric analysis, Factor structure
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