lecture_4_health_behavours

lecture_4_health_behavours - Health-Enhancing Behaviours...

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Unformatted text preview: Health-Enhancing Behaviours Body Shape and Weight Concerns Studies suggest that as many as 80% of 10-year girls have been on a diet; 50% of girls between 14 and 18 years believe they are too fat; and 45% of 14 to 18 year old girls are dieting. DSM-IV Criteria Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to maintain body weight at or above normal weight for age (i.e., weight loss or failure to gain weight resulting in weight < 85% of expected). Intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat. Disturbed body image, undue influence of weight on issues of self-worth, denial of seriousness of weight loss. Absence of at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. DSM-IV Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa (BN) Recurrent episodes of binge eating characterized by: Eating an abnormally large quantity of food in a discrete period of time; and A sense of lack of control over eating. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviours (e.g., vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas, fasting, vigorous exercise). The above two occur at least twice a week for at least 3 months. Self-evaluation unduly influenced by weight. Etiology of AN 10-15 times more frequent in women than men Evidence for genetics is inconistent Family variables include the child being over-controlled by parents. Sociocultural risk factors Eating Disorders Not a new disorder Anorexia nervosa (AN) first described in 1694 Bulimia nervosa (BN) first identified in 1892 Usual age of onset is adolescence or early 20s. 90% or more are females. Prevalence of AN is 0.5% to 1.0%. Prevalence of BN is 1.0 to 3.0%. Etiology of Bulimia Nervosa Bio-psychosocial model proposes that biogenetic predispositions, e.g., depression, combine with familial factors and sociocultural pressures, emphasizing high achievement and thinness, that promote a character structure featuring affective instability and low self-esteem. Etiology of BN continued Negative Self-Evaluation Characteristic extreme concerns about shape and weight Intense and rigid dieting Perfectionism and dichotomous thinking. Binge eating Negative affect Purging Referral Rates for AN and BN to Clarke Institute from 1975 - 1986 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 A N - r e s t r i c t o r B N A N - b i n g e Healthy Exercise 3 hours per week (across 3 5 sessions) Warm-up Stretching and flexibility exercise Strength and endurance exercise Aerobics Rhythmic exercise of large muscle groups Raise heart rate to moderately high level Cool down...
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lecture_4_health_behavours - Health-Enhancing Behaviours...

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