Lec 3 - Matter and Minerals

Lec 3 - Matter and Minerals - REVIEW LEC 3 MATTER AND...

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REVIEW LEC 3 – MATTER AND MINERALS A mineral is : a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, having an orderly internal structure and a definite chemical composition. Rocks are a naturally occurring complex aggregate of minerals. The most important elements in the Earth’s Crust are: Silicon, oxygen, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and aluminum. Silicon and oxygen are the most abundant elements . Atoms combine based on charge in the outer ‘shell’ of electrons. Cations = positive charge Anions = negative charge There are 4 types of bonds (We only consider first 3): - IONIC Bonds: attraction between oppositely charged ions producing an electrically neutral compound [e.g. Na + Cl = NaCl (salt)] - COVALENT bonds: atoms ‘share’ electrons which forms strong bond - METALLIC bonds: form of ionic bond where electrons form a cloud around positive nuclei. Only for metallic ions like: Fe, Cu, Zn, Au, etc.] - VAN Der WAALS (weak bond – ignore for this course] Silicate Minerals Silica tetrahedra
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course GEOL 3413 taught by Professor Hileman during the Spring '11 term at Oklahoma State.

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Lec 3 - Matter and Minerals - REVIEW LEC 3 MATTER AND...

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