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chapter2notes - The West and the Rest Modern Formation...

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The West and the Rest Modern Formation NOTES FIVE MAIN PHASES OF EXPANSION 1) period of exploration when Europe discovered the new worlds for itself for the first time 2) period of early contact, conquest, settlement, and colonization when large parts of new worlds were first annexed to Europe as possessions or harnessed through trade 3) time during which shape of permanent European settlement, colonization or exploitation was established. Plantation societies in N. America, mining and ranching in L. America, rubber and tea plantations of India, Ceylon, and the East Indies. a. Capitalism emerged as global market. 4) Phase when scramble for colonies, markets, and raw materials reached climax 5) Present when much of world is economically dependent on the West even when independent and decolonized. West and the Rest as a system of Formation 1) What is discourse ? What is discursive practice ? a. Discourse is a particular way of representing ‘the West’, ‘the Rest’, and the relations between them. b. Group of statements that provide a language for talking about and hence representing a particular kind of knowledge about a topic c. When statements about a topic are made within a type of discourse, the discourse makes it possible to construct the topic in a certain way and limits the other ways in which the topic can be constructed. d. Though discourse is not ideologically neutral, it does not mirror particular class interests. Discourse is clearly molded by play of motives and interests across their language e. Discourse consists of several statements working together to form what Michael Foucault calls a discursive formation . i. Statements fit together because any one statement implies a relation to all the others. ii. Same object, same style, same support iii. Statements within a discursive formation are not the same, but the relationships and differences between them are regular and systematic, not random. (System of Dispersion) f. Discourse is NOT based on conventional distinction between thought and action, language and practice. Discourse is about the production of knowledge through LANGUAGE. i. Production of knowledge through discursive practice or the practice of producing meaning. ii. All social practices entail meaning so all practices have a discursive aspect and discourse enters into and influences all social practices. iii. E.g. discourse about the Rest from the West was implicated in practice or in how the West BEHAVED TOWARD the Rest. 2) What is the relationship between truth and ideology in the social sciences? a. Ideology is a set of statements or beliefs which produces knowedge that serves the interests of a particular group or class. i. based on distinction between true statements about the world (sciences)
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and false statements (ideology) ii. holds that facts about the world helps us to decide between true and false statements.
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