Chapter 4 - Functional anatomy of procaryotic cell

Chapter 4 - Functional anatomy of procaryotic cell -...

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Chapter 4 (Tortora) Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic cell Tortora Chapter 4: Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cell: 1. No nuclear membrane (no nucleus only nuclear material) 2. Chemically complex cell wall (almost always contain Peptidoglycan). Peptidoglycan: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 3. No membrane bound organelles like mitochondria or Golgi apparatus. 4. Chromatin does not contain histone protein. Chromatin: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Histone protein: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 5. Plasma membrane does not contain sterols (lipids) 6. Ribosomes are smaller (70s) 7. Usually reproduce asexually by binary fission. Binary Fission: 1
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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells 1. Both contain all four organic compounds i.e. - nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) - proteins - carbohydrates and - Lipids 2. Carry-out similar chemical reactions to: - metabolize food - synthesize proteins - store energy Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells Size Diameter (in um) Length (in um) • Cocci 0.2 - 2 n/a • bacilli 0.2 - 2 2 - 8 • Vibrios and Spirilla 0.2 - 2.0 0.5 - 100 Shape Monomorphism: All cells in a pure culture maintain a single shape. Examples: 1. E. coli 2. S. aureus Pleomorphism: The variation in size and form between individual cells in a pure culture. Examples: 1. Mycobacteria 2. Corynebacterium 3. Rhizobium 4. Mycoplasma 2
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Typically, bacteria display three basic shapes: 1. cocci (sing. coccus) are round or spherical. 2. bacilli (sing. bacillus) are cylindrical or rod-shaped. 3. spiral forms a. Spirilla (sing. Spirillaum): are actual spirals or helical, like corkscrews. Their bodies are rigid and essentially all are motile by means of polar flagella. Example: Spirillum minor b. Spirochetes: are spiral bacteria their bodies are flexible and they are motile by means of axial filaments. Example: Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum c. Vibrios are curved rods resembling commas. Example:
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Chapter 4 - Functional anatomy of procaryotic cell -...

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