Chapter 5 - Microbial metabolism

Chapter 5 - Microbial metabolism - Chapter 5(Tortora...

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Chapter 5 (Tortora) Microbial Metabolism Chapter 5: Metabolism: Fueling the Cell Growth Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions (anabolic and catabolic) within a living organism. Or An energy balance act. Or YIN-YANG Anabolism or Synthesis: Chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize large molecules from simpler components. Example: 1) Amino Acid + Amino Acid Dipeptid H2O 2) Capsule Synthesis in Bacteria Catabolism or Hydrolysis: The chemical breakdown of complex molecules into simpler substances. This process releases energy. 1) Dipeptide Amino Acid, Amino Acid H20 2) Breakdown of capsule under unfavorable conditions Enzymes (Organic Catalysts): Proteins produced by living cells that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. 1
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Substrate: The substance on which enzyme works. Active or Catalytic Site: The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate. Enzyme Structure: A number of enzymes are pure proteins (simple enzymes) however many enzymes (holoenzymes) consist of a protein portion (apoenzyme) and a non-protein portion (coenzyme or cofactor) Coenzyme is an organic molecule such as: Vitamin K - Used in electron transport chain Folic Acid - Used in the synthesis of nucleic acids Cofactor is an inorganic ion such as magnesium, zinc, or manganese. The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action 1. The substrate combines with active site of the enzyme. 2. A temporary intermediate compound forms called enzyme- substrate complex. 3. The substrate molecule is transformed by:
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Chapter 5 - Microbial metabolism - Chapter 5(Tortora...

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