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Chapter 8 - Microbial genetics

Chapter 8 - Microbial genetics - Chapter 8(Tortora...

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Chapter 8 (Tortora) Microbial Genetics Microbial Genetics Genetics: study of the inheritance or heredity. Genome: total genetic information in an organism Chromosome: structures that contain the DNA of organism. Gene: fundamental unit of a chromosome. Genetic Code: A sequence of three bases in DNA. Codon: a sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid in the translation process. Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism. Phenotype: expression of the genes; characteristics that can be observed. DNA and Chromosome Bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made of DNA. A typical bacteria chromosome has about 4 million base pairs and is about 1mm long (1000 times larger than the bacterial cell). Structure of DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) A. DNA is a bouble stranded helical polymer of nucleotides. B. Each nucleotide is composed of: 1. Pentose sugar (Deoxyribose) 2. Phosphate and 3. One of the following four nitrogen bases: A. Purines: a. Adenine b. Guanine B. Pyrimidine: a. Cytosine 1
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b. Thymine C. Two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds. D. Thymine is always paired with adenine, and guanine is always paired with cytosine (complementary base pairing). Structure of RNA 1. Single stranded. 2. Contains ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose sugar. 3. The nitrogen bases include: A. Purine a. Adenine b. Guanine B. Pyrimidine a. Cytosine b. Uracil 4. Bacterial cells contain four different types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) 4. Ribozymes DNA Replication 1. DNA Molecule uncoils.
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