Chapter 20 - Antimicrobial drugs

Chapter 20 - Antimicrobial drugs - Chapter 20 Antimicrobial...

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Chapter 20 – Antimicrobial Drugs The History of Chemotherapy The modern era of chemotherapy (treatment of disease with chemical compound) began in 1908 with the discovery of “magic bullet” salvarsan (arsphenamine, and 606) by the German Chemist Paul Ehrlich. The first antibiotic (penicillin) was actually discovered in 1896 by a 21-year-old French medical student named Ernest Duchesne. His work was forgotten and penicillin was rediscovered in 1929 by the Scottish Scientist named Alexander Fleming. The Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity The range of microbes affected by an antimicrobial is called its spectrum. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are effective only against a limited variety of microbes. Example: Bacitracin (Gram +) Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against wide variety of gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria. Example: 1. Tetracyclines (Gram +, Gram -, mycoplasmas, mycobacteria) 2. Trimethoprim (Gram +, Gram -) The action of antimicrobial drugs 1. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis: Inhibit transpeptidation enzymes involved in the cross-linking of the polysaccharide chains of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Drugs are effective in rapidly growing bacteria.
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course MCB MCB2010 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '09 term at Broward College.

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Chapter 20 - Antimicrobial drugs - Chapter 20 Antimicrobial...

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