Immunity - Immunity Nonspecific host resistance and the...

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Immunity Nonspecific host resistance and the immune response (specific host response) 1. Resistance → ability to fight off a disease. 2. Susceptibility → lack of resistance. 3. Antigen → any substance self or foreign that can initiate an immune response to an immune competent host. a) T-dependant antigen → an antigen that requires assistance from T-helper lymphocytes to synthesize antibodies. b) T-independent antigen → an antigen that does not require assistance from T- helper lymphocytes to synthesize antibodies. 4. Hapten → an incomplete antigen; an antigen that cannot initiate or trigger an immune response on its own. 5. Antibody → a specific protein synthesized in response to a specific antigen. 6. B-lymphocytes or B-cells → provide Humoral immunity by synthesizing antibodies. 7. T-lymphocytes or T-cells → provide cellular immunity by synthesizing group of proteins called lymphokines. 8. Vaccine → an antigen that protects the host from a specific disease. 9. Opsonin → any substance that increases the chance of phagocytosis. Nonspecific defenses of the host (first line of defense) A. Constitutional factors: 1. Species resistance: a. Birds are resistant to Bacillus anthracis, while cattle are susceptible. b. Humans get mumps but cats and dogs do not. c. Humans are susceptible to plaque (Yersinia pestis) while ground squirrels are resistant. 1
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2. Race or strain resistance a. African blacks are more susceptible to tuberculosis than whites. b. Whites are more susceptible to influenza, diphtheria, and gonorrhea than blacks. 3. Gender (male or female) Difficult to say because of unequal exposure, but in a lab experiment it was noticed that female mice were 20% more resistant to typhoid fever than male mice. 4. Nutrition Dietary protein and vitamins are directly related to protection from microbial disease. Proteins are used to make healthy new tissues and serum proteins, while vitamins are essential for various metabolic activities. Cabbage → susceptibility to salmonella reduced
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course MCB MCB2010 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '09 term at Broward College.

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Immunity - Immunity Nonspecific host resistance and the...

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