Genetics - Genetics 0. The study of heredity 1. Gene0. A...

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Genetics 0. The study of heredity 1. Gene- 0. A unit of information that represents an individual trait 1. Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome 2. Humans are diploid organisms 3. We have pairs of chromosomes, so we have pairs of genes. 0. Allele- one form of a gene 4. You receive two alleles for each trait, one from each parent. 1. Homozygous- two alleles for a single trait are the same . 2. Heterozygous- two alleles for a single trait are different Dominant - 2. Allele that is dominant shows its trait over another allele 5. Recessive- 3. Allele that is hidden or overridden by the dominant trait. 4. You must have two recessive alleles for the trait to be seen. Symbols 6. A- dominant trait; capital letter 7. a- recessive trait; lower case letter 8. AA- homozygous dominant 9. Aa- heterozygous 10.aa- homozygous recessive Single trait example #1 11.Fur color in rats 12.Black fur is dominant over brown fur
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13.A- black a- brown 14.What are the two alleles for a parent rat that is homozygous for black fur? 15.What are the two alleles for a parent rat that is homozygous for brown fur? What is the genotype for a heterozygous individual? 16.What are the two alleles for a rat that is heterozygous for black fur? 17.Each combination of two alleles is called a genotype. 18.A Genotype can be presented by words or letters. 5. Ex. Homozygous dominant or AA 19.Phenotype 6. The physical characteristic that is visible. 7. Ex. Brown or black fur The black rat is expressing its: 20. Genotype or phenotype? Breeding generations 21.Parent generation- P 8. Each parent must be homozygous. One is always homozygous dominant and the other is homozygous recessive. 22.The two parents mate to produce offspring called the F1 or first filial generation 23.All F1 individuals are heterozygous.
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24.The F1 generation is mated or crossed and produces the third generation, F2 or second filial generation. 25.As we follow a single trait through generations, the ratio of the trait’s appearance is mathematically consistent. Punnett Square 26. Each time two individuals mate, we observe a single trait. We use Punnett squares on paper to predict the outcomes as long as the genotypes of the parents are known. Single trait cross 27. You are given the parent alleles or genotype. 28. One letter or allele is placed over/next to one box in the square. 29. This represents meiosis, the separating of alleles into different gametes. 30. Female alleles will go on top of square and male alleles will go on the left side of square. 31. Our female is homozygous dominant Our male is homozygous recessive What is mom’s genotype? 0. Mom will be AA
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course BSC 1005 taught by Professor Vanden during the Spring '09 term at Broward College.

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Genetics - Genetics 0. The study of heredity 1. Gene0. A...

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