Respiratory Gas Transport

Respiratory Gas Transport - Active tissue - more O 2...

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RESPIRATORY GAS TRANSPORT
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OXYGEN TRANSPORT 98.5% oxygen in arterial blood is bound to hemoglobin and 1.5% is dissolved in plasma Each heme group of 4 globin chains in a hemoglobin molecule may bind O 2
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Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
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CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT 90% as carbonic acid in plasma CO + H O H CO HCO + H
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SYSTEMIC GAS EXCHANGE • CO 2 loading carbonic anhydrase in RBC catalyzes • CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - + H + chloride shift • keeps reaction proceeding, exchanges HCO 3 - for Cl - (H + binds to hemoglobin) • O 2 unloading – H + binding to HbO 2 causes affinity for O 2 Hb arrives 97% saturated, but leaves 75% saturated ( venous reserve) Utilization coefficient ( amount of oxygen Hb has released) is 22%
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ALVEOLAR GAS EXCHANGE Reactions are the reverse of systemic gas exchange O 2 2 unloading
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Alveolar Gas Exchange
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Systemic Gas Exchange
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FACTORS FAVORING OXYGEN UNLOADING Metabolic needs of tissues affect O unloading
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Bohr effect: release of O in response to low pH
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Unformatted text preview: Active tissue - more O 2 released Metabolic needs of tissues affect C O loading FACTORS FAVORING CARBON DIOXIDE LOADING CHEMORECEPTORS Monitor pH, P CO 2 , P O 2 of body fluids Peripheral chemoreceptors aortic bodies - signal medulla by vagus nerves carotid bodies - signal medulla by glossopharyngeal nerves Central chemoreceptors on surface of medulla primarily monitor pH of cerebrospinal fluid Peripheral Chemoreceptor Pathways DIRECT CARBONDIOXIDE EFFECT ON CHEMORECEPTORS 2200 CO may directly stimulate peripheral chemoreceptors and trigger ventilation more quickly than central chemoreceptors DIRECT EFFECT OF OXYGEN ON CHEMORECEPTORS Usually, oxygen has little effect on chemoreceptors. Chronic hypoxemia, PO < 60 mmHg, as is associated with emphysema & pneumonia may cause increased ventilation ....
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Respiratory Gas Transport - Active tissue - more O 2...

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