Chapt04_ContinentalMargins

Chapt04_ContinentalMargins - CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND THE...

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CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND THE CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND THE SEAFLOOR SEAFLOOR Chapter 4
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Geology in the oceans is like flying in a balloon over the continents on a cloudy day and periodically dropping a bucket over and pulling things up. Imagine what you would think if you only got one sample from Vermont and one from Florida. The surface of Venus has been mapped in more detail than the bottom of the ocean.
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Techniques: Techniques: 1) Drilling deep cores they can be >1km long, and collected in water depths > 5 km Short cores, generally < 10 m of sediment on the bottom 2) Dredging, the "bucket" analogy 3) submersibles and ROV- submarines manned and unmanned- can make observations and collect samples (Box 4.1)
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4) echo sounding- detailed bottom depths- similar to "fish locators"- measures the travel time for sound waves through water.(1500 m/s)(fig. 4.2)
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5) Seismic measurements- identical in theory to echo sounders, but they are higher energy so the sound penetrates into the sediment 6) Satellite altimetry – measures sea level variations (fig. 4.4)
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II. PROFILES OF THE OCEAN FLOOR II. PROFILES OF THE OCEAN FLOOR : : A. Atlantic Ocean If you could drive on the ocean floor from North America to Europe, you would see the following major features: (fig. 4.5)
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Continental shelf Continental shelf extends from shoreline to tens to hundreds of kilometers offshore. Depths range from 0 m to about 130 m at the edge (fig. 4.10)
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(2) Continental slope - extends from edge of shelf (130 m water depth) to depth of about 2000 to 3000 m. It is fairly narrow, around 50 km wide. On average the slope is about 4 degrees, or about 70 m vertical for every 1000 m horizontal.
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