ch05_Ecosystems

ch05_Ecosystems - How Ecosystems Work Chapter 5 Lake...

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How Ecosystems Work Chapter 5
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Lake Victoria’s Ecological Imbalance World’s second largest freshwater lake 400 species of cichlids, important food source Nile Perch introduced in 1960s 1985, most catch was perch, ate cichlids Today, more than 50% of cichlids and other native fish are extinct Algae eating cichlids disappeared, algal explosion, no Oxygen in bottom of lake dead zone If the rest of cichlids disappear, perch won’t have anything to eat, and fisher will collapse http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VK9v3ioiYBU
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What is Ecology? Learning Objectives: 1. Define ecology 2. Distinguish among the following ecological levels: population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and biosphere
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What is Ecology? The study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment Environment: Biotic (living) - all organisms Abiotic (non-living) - physical factors: space, temperature, sunlight, soil, precipitation, etc. Focus can be local or global Broadest field of Biology Linked to all parts of biology, and to geology, chemistry, physics
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What is Ecology? Levels of Interest: Population: a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same place at the same time, e.g., population of marsh grass, walruses Communities: a natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact together within an area at the same time, e.g., Alpine meadow, tidal pool Ecologists would study how species interact with each other, including feeding relationships
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What is Ecology?
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Ecosystem: includes all the biological interactions of a community AND the interactions of organisms with their abiotic environment Very complex interactions between energy flow and nutrient cycling Ecologists would study how energy, nutrients, or water level affects the organisms living in a desert Landscape: studies ecological processes over large areas and several interacting ecosystems What is Ecology?
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What is Ecology?
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Biosphere: the layer of Earth that contains all living organisms Ecologists study the global interrelationships among water, land, atmosphere, and organisms Includes organisms, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, etc. depend on the Earth’s other layers: Atmosphere: layer of air Hydrosphere: supply of water Lithosphere: soil and rock of Earth’s crust What is Ecology?
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Global Climate Change 1. What is the definition of ecology? 2. What is the difference between an ecosystem and a landscape? Between a community and an ecosystem?
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The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Learning Objectives 1. Define energy and state the first and second laws of thermodynamics 2. Distinguish among producers, consumers, and decomposers 3. Summarize how energy flows through an ecosystem
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The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Energy: the ability to do work Potential energy: stored Kinetic Energy: energy of motion Potential energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Kinetic energy
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ch05_Ecosystems - How Ecosystems Work Chapter 5 Lake...

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