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Smith8_Campbell-Blair-Whately - Smith Chapter 8 Campbell...

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Smith Chapter 8 Campbell, Blair, Whately 1 George Campbell I. Biography dates (1719-1796) A. British B. Scottish Presbyterian Minister C. Educational administrator D. Theologian E. Taught at Marishal College II. Three great interests A. Theology B. Philosophy C. Rhetoric III. Influenced by A. Aristotle B. Cicero C. Quintilian D. Ad Herrenium E. On the Sublime F. Bacon G. Locke H. Hume, his teacher IV. Kennedy says the purpose of Campbell's rhetoric is to think out a new theory of rhetoric on the basis of the British empiricist philosophers. a) Drawing knowledge through perception b) Like Hume, Berkeley 1) Knowledge through perception as opposed to rationalism c) Like Plato, Parmenides, Descartes 1) Tries to deduce the way the world is by thinking, reflective thinking— foundationalism V. The Philosophy of Rhetoric A. 1776 is his principal work on rhetoric. B. Deals with two questions 1. Question 1--ontology--What is the nature of external objects? 2. Question 2--epistemology--What processes do we use to acquaint ourselves with those external objects? 3. His goal is not to write a handbook of rhetoric-- how ; but rather a philosophical exploration of rhetorical principles-- why C. Three sections to the book 1. The nature and foundations of eloquence 2. Theory of human nature 3. Definition of rhetoric a) Style--elocution b) The discriminating properties of elocution--vivacity
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Smith Chapter 8 Campbell, Blair, Whately 2 D. Four stages of a complete theory of rhetoric 1. We observe attempts to influence others 2. Sort out attempts to influence into two categories: a) successful b) unsuccessful 3. Formulate rules for rhetoric 4. Verify the rules by referring them back to a theory of human nature a) The first three have been done many times--first with the Greeks and repeated many times b) He will concentrate on the 4th stage c) He begins with human understanding--come up with a "tolerable sketch of human understanding then refer that knowledge to a philosophy of rhetoric." E. Where do ideas in our understanding come from?--How do we know? 1. The only thing we know are the contents of our own minds 2. Follows Locke, Berkeley, Hume- 3. Treatise on Human Understanding a) Two kinds of knowledge 1) a priori—innate ideas 2) a posteriori—empirically known ideas 4. Locke rejects doctrine of a) a priori ideas and says that all knowledge begins with sense impressions. 5. Campbell agrees and says that we only know the contents of our own mind. 6. Therefore we infer the existence of the external world--there must be something that gives us our ideas 7. There are two kinds of ideas 8. Those known immediately a) ideas of intellection-- 2+3=5 b) consciousness--I am aware of myself c) ideas of common sense--the existence of the external world we know via the light of our own consciousness
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Smith8_Campbell-Blair-Whately - Smith Chapter 8 Campbell...

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