Smith9_Existentialists - Existential Revolt 1 Existential...

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Existential Revolt 1 Existential Revolt Against Modernists Existentialists argued that reality evades definitive and often adequate explanation; however, such uncertainty gives one freedom of choice. Uncertainty sustains the need for rhetoric both as a discourse that can make the unclear lucid and as a form of communication that can make sense of the world. I. MODERNIST POSITION A. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 1. Invented the term Enlightenment; "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self- imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance." 2. Mixed view of rhetoric: "Force and elegance of speech, which together constitute rhetoric, belong to fine art; but oratory, being the art of playing for one's own purpose upon the weaknesses of men, no matter how noble the purpose, merits no respect whatever." (Cite?) 3. Kant: sought to uncover the universal morality that God had provided to humans--by reason alone. Book: Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone-- a refutation of Luther's famous phrase of "justification by faith alone." a) Thus, modern rationalism tried to replace the religious era b) Spiritual slavery and religious wars were to be replaced by human reason and individual critiques that were highly skeptical. c) "Transcendental Aesthetic:" an abstract kind of intellection that ordered sense experiences and related them to time and space d) "Transcendental Logic:" what organizes the concepts we perceive? Mind is not blank but has "categories" that help us organize what we perceive. e) We can only know what our categories constitute as phenomena. 1) Reality is phenomena and reason is not possible without relating it to this reality--thus, pure reason is an abstraction. 2) Kant believed that a "noumenal" world (with different and higher truths) existed beyond the practical world--unlike Plato he did not believe that humans could perceive this realm. 3) While causality rules the phenomenal world, complete freedom exists only in the noumenal world. B. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) 1. Science of Logic, In the Introduction he claims that logic was the reflection of God before the creation of nature. 2. Both Hegel and Kant believe that you can determine the truth and achieve your highest aim through rational mental processes. 3.
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Smith9_Existentialists - Existential Revolt 1 Existential...

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