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Smith10_KBurke%20copy - Identification Dialectic and...

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Identification, Dialectic and Dramatism Background: Burke dramatically affected by ideas from Freud and Marx. Sigmund Freud 3 Levels of consciousness 1. Preconscious—from which we inherit the ability to feel things instinctively 2. The Conscious: In this state we are aware of the phenomena around us 3. Unconscious: Not available to us; It is reflected, not seen directly a. Only reached by outside help, accidentally—in some irrational way. b. Sometimes through dreams (difficult to interpret). c. Word associations d. Rorschach test Structure of the Psyche Definition: Comes from Plato’s 3 parts of the soul in the Phaedrus and the Symposium . 1. Id: The substructure of drives, the source of sexual energy, and the pleasure principle 2. Superego: moral structure of the psyche and operates on the “reality principle.” It offers rewards for good behavior that are based on societal, peer group, and family-derived “models.” 3. Ego: contains the Will. Seeks reality and self-validation, but must do battle with three tough masters: the external world, the superego, and the id. The ego rides the horse of desire using the reins of morality. Thus it is nearly always in a state of conflict resolution between the rules of the superego and the desires of the id. Operation: To deal with problems (anxiety—fear without a cause) we have developed defense mechanisms that have important rhetorical functions: 1. Projection : makes what is internal and unacceptable into something that is external and distant; we project our problem(s) onto others; this is the classic case of the “kettle calling the pot black.” 2. Denial of Reality : powerful rhetorical tactic that is often more revealing than the user of the tactic would like—often reveals inner guilt feelings of being precisely what the protester denies. “Me thinks thou doth protest too much.” 3. Isolation : removes a concept from feelings of emotion. Intellectualize love so that its lustful side is suppressed. Pleasure of food intellectualized as a place for good conversation. Emotions often make us feel uncomfortable, uneasy, guilty, unclean, so we remove the objects of our desire from their emotional attachments. 4. Rationalization : it explains the unacceptable in terms of the acceptable; it switches a base motive for a noble one. 5. Repression : uses energy to bury some thought or occurrence that we wish to forget. The psyche believes that what it does not know can’t hurt it. Psychiatrists often try to surface the repressed items so that the individual can be free of them and the energy they drain.
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6. Sublimation : replaces the object of gratification with a higher cultural good. EX: some professors sublimate their desire to have a family by teaching and publishing books. (Can be good—can sublimate lower forms of gratification by creating works of art.) Theory of Identification 1. Identification begins in the development of the ego—psychologists believe its invention is a dialectic involving the superego and the id in the realm of the
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Smith10_KBurke%20copy - Identification Dialectic and...

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