Lecture 14 9-23-11 - Extent of Reaction Reaction...

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1 Reaction Terminology Stoichiometric proportions Limiting and excess reactant Conversion Extent of reaction Yield Selectivity Chemical Equilibrium (reversible and irreversible reactions) used for multiple reactions Extent of Reaction ( ξ ) Chemical reactions are almost never instantaneous Need a way of characterizing the kinetics of generation and consumption The amount of reaction which has occurred up to some time is expressed by the extent of reaction ( ξ ) which is defined by n i = n io + ν i ξ where n i = is the amount of substance i at some time (t) n io = the amount of substance i present initially ν i = the stoichiometric coefficient for species i ν i = (-) if a reactant (+) if a product Phosgene gas is a major industrial chemical used to make plastics and pesticides. Phosgene can be made by the catalytic reaction between CO and chlorine gas in the presence of a carbon catalyst. The chemical reaction is CO + Cl 2 COCl 2 Suppose that you have measured the reaction products from a given reactor and found that they contain 3.00 lb-moles chlorine, 10.00 lb- moles phosgene, and 7.00 lb-moles CO. Calculate the extent of reaction, and using the value calculated, determine the initial amounts of CO and Cl 2 that were used in the reaction. CO + Cl 2 COCl 2 CO 7.0 lb-moles Cl 2 3.0 lb-moles COCl 2 10.0 lb-moles CO Cl 2 n CO = n CO ,0 ζ n Cl 2 = n Cl 2 ,0 ζ n COCl 2 = n COCl 2 ,0 + ζ 7.0 lb moles = n CO ,0 ζ 3.0 lb moles = n Cl 2 ,0 ζ 10.0 lb moles = 0 + ζ What Extent of rxn relationships can I write? Draw a sketch CO + Cl 2 COCl 2 CO 7.0 lb-moles Cl 2 3.0 lb-moles COCl 2 10.0 lb-moles CO Cl 2 7.0 lb moles = n CO,0 10.0 lb moles 3.0 lb moles = n Cl 2 ,0 10.0 lb moles ζ = 10.0 lb moles n CO,0 = 17.0 lb moles n Cl 2 ,0 = 13.0 lb
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