Useful Equations Constants: e= 1.60210−19C fundamental unit of charge me= 9.1110−31kg, mass of the electron mp= 1.6710−27kg mass of the proton K = 1/(40) =9.0109 Nm2C−2Electric proportionality constant0 = 8.8510−12 C2N−1m−2, 0= 410−7TmA−1Permittivity and permeability of free space g= 9.80 m/s2acceleration of gravityNA= 6.0221023mole−1Avogadro’sNumberc= 3.00108m/s Speed of light in a vacuum Conversions and relationships: C= 2r, A= r2circumference and area of a circle A= 4r2, V= (4/3)r3 Surface area and volume of a sphere 2rad = 360= 1 revolution Relationship between radians, degrees, and revolutions. Quadratic Equation: For an equation, ax2+ bx+ c= 0, the solution is aacbbx242. Trigonometry: If the vector V makes an angle of with the xaxis, then Vx= V cos, Vy= V sin, the magnitude of V, is given by 22yxVVV, and tan= Vy/Vx.
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