chapt02_v0811_The Chemistry of Life

chapt02_v0811_The Chemistry of Life - Unit 2. The Chemistry...

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1 Unit 2. The Chemistry of Life
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2 ATOMS MATTER has mass (weight) and occupies space All matter is composed of ATOMS An ATOM is the smallest particle of matter A single atom can also be called an ELEMENT so: ATOM=ELEMENT An ELEMENT is something that cannot be broken down Atom with another Atom = MOLECULE
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3 ELEMENTS Contained in the PERIODIC Table
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4 Mendeleev helped create the periodic table. Is there an element named after him?
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5 Elements of the Human Body. Most abundant elements in your body = Phosphorus, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Calcium (Remember: PHONiCC) Phosphorus, symbol is P, atomic number is ____ Hydrogen, symbol _______, Atomic # 1 Oxygen, symbol ___, Atomic # ___ Nitrogen, Symbol ___, Atomic # 7 _______, symbol C, Atomic # 6 Calcium, Symbol Ca, Atomic # ___
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Other Elements to Know and Love Helium, symbol He, Atomic # ____ Sodium, symbol ____, Atomic # _____ Chlorine, symbol Cl, Atomic # _____ Potassium, symbol ____, Atomic # 19 6
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7 ATOM ANATOMY NUCLEUS - center of the atom Two subatomic particles are contained in the nucleus: PROTONS and NEUTRONS ELECTRONS Subatomic particles whizzing around the nucleus
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8 Electron’s Distance from Nucleus PALM BEACH AIRPORT BC Nucle US Homestead AFB 40 Miles 40 miles from BC 40 miles from BCC
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9 SUBATOMIC CHARGES PRO TON - has a ‘positive’ (+) electronic charge (if you are ‘pro’ something you are ‘positive’ towards it) NEUTR ON - has a NO (neutr al) electronic charge ELECTRON - has a ‘negative’ (-) electronic charge (wet fingers on a live wire is a ‘negative’ experience)
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10 ATOMIC RULES. ATOMIC NUMBER of an element is number of PROTONS in it’s nucleus ATOMIC WEIGHT is the nucleus weight for example: 2 neutrons and 2 protons gives the atomic weight of 4 In neutral atoms: the number of protons always equals the number of electrons.
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11 D e t e r m i n e s A T O M I C N U M B E R P R O T O N S D e t e r m i n e s A T O M I C W E I G H T N U C L E U S ( P r o t o n s a n d N e u t r o n s ) N E U T R O N S A r r a n g e d i n S H E L L S ( A r o u n d N u c l e u s ) E L E C T R O N S A T O M S
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12 Exceptions to the Rule All elements have both protons and neutrons in their nucleus EXCEPT the element HYDROGEN (it only has a proton) IONS are atoms that do not have the same number of electrons as protons Remember that a neutral element (has no charge) - the proton equal the electrons
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13 Stable Atom (Not reactive). 2 proton
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14 UNSTABLE ATOM (Very Reactive). 1 proton The Hindenburg
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15 IONS An element that losses an electron has more protons (or positive charges) is called a ‘POSITIVE’ ION (pronounced: “Eye-on”) An element that gains an electron has more electrons (or negative charges) is called a ‘NEGATIVE’ ION To determine the charge of an element : add the number of positive charges (number of protons) then subtract the number of negative charges (number of electrons) Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen Ion
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16 IONS EXAMPLE: NOT AN ION= Sodium is
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chapt02_v0811_The Chemistry of Life - Unit 2. The Chemistry...

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