chapt04_v0811_Genetics

chapt04_v0811_Genetics - Chapter 4 Genetics and Cellular...

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1 Chapter 4 Genetics and Cellular Function Genetics is the action of genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one or more proteins.
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2 The Nucleic Acids (history) Discovery of the DNA double helix 1953: x-ray diffraction determined geometry of DNA molecule made by Rosalind Franklin Nobel Prize awarded in 1962 to 3 men: Watson, Crick and Wilkins but not to Rosalind Franklin who died of cancer at 37 from the x-ray data that provided the answers.
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3 Organization of DNA Forever trapped in the _____, that’s why it is called _____ DNA uncoiled is called chromatin Chromatin is compacted DNA Chromatin is composed of DNA wound around protein
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4 Structure of DNA DNA is made form a pair of nucleotides A Nucleotide consist of: 1. base G, C, A, T 2. phosphate 3. sugar deoxyribose A Nucleotide
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5 DNA Structure: A Double Helix DNA can be likened to a ladder. The sides of the ladder are composed of phosphates and sugar (deoxyribose), the rungs or steps of the ladder are composed of two complementary bases.
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6 Complementary Base Pairing The bases form hydrogen bonds Base pairs Gee C A T Gee = Guanine C = Cytosine A = Adenine T = Thymine Sugar-phosphate backbone Segment of DNA
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7 DNA Function Serves as code for amino acids Put a bunch of amino acids together and you get a _____ Genome - all the genes of one person humans have estimated 35,000 genes
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8 RNA 3 types of RNA messenger RNA (m-RNA) ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) transfer RNA (t-RNA) RNA has G, C, A, and “U” but no “T”
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How Proteins are Made DNA never leaves the nucleus The library of information stored in DNA can only be copied. This is done by m-RNA Protein is created by this pathway: DNA to RNA to PROTEIN This is called the Central Dogma because it describes the key used by your cells to express their genes GENES CONTROL THE PRODUCTION OF __________.
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The Central Dogma
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DNA and RNA DNA has Deoxyribose as it’s sugar (So we call it Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) RNA has ________ as it’s sugar (So we call it _______ Nucleic Acid DNA is a double helix RNA is a single helix DNA has G, C, A, T as it’s bases RNA has G, C, A, U as it’s bases
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DNA vs. RNA
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Three RNAs m-RNA= Messenger RNA Looks like a single ribbon (single helix) Three bases attached are called a codon r-RNA= Ribosomal RNA It’s two proteins combined together Looks likes like a fist with the other hand wrapped around it t-RNA= Transfer RNA It looks like a big “T” with three bases called an anticodon
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TransCription Transcription occurs in the nucleus.
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course BSC 1085 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Broward College.

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chapt04_v0811_Genetics - Chapter 4 Genetics and Cellular...

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