chapt14_ v811_ Brain

chapt14_ v811_ Brain - Chapter 14 The Central Nervous...

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Chapter 14 The Central Nervous System “From the brain only, arises our pleasures, joys, laughter, and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs, and tears.”- Hippocrates 1 The brain is a center The brain is a center for: for: 1. registering sensations 1. registering sensations 2. correlating with 2. correlating with stored information stored information 3. making decisions 3. making decisions 4. taking action. 4. taking action.
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Landmarks Major parts of the brain - cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem brain weighs about 3 pounds, more in anatomy students
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3 Lobes of the Brain The lobes of the brain are named for the cranial bones the overlie them The frontal lobe has the prefrontal cortex , the anterior part of the frontal lobe
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4 Brain Longitudinal fissure separates 2 cerebral hemispheres Fissures are deep grooves sulci the shallow grooves gyri are the elevated folds surface layer of gray matter is called the cortex, squash, noodle
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Cranial Meninges Dura mater -- outermost, tough membrane Forms venous sinuses draining blood from brain falx cerebri Arachnoid mater is spider web filamentous layer Pia mater is a thin vascular layer adherent to brain The brain has a PAD around it that is continuous with the _____ 5
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6 Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear liquid fills ventricles and canals, it flows in the subarachnoid space Functions buoyancy -- floats brain so it neutrally buoyant protection -- cushions from hitting inside of skull chemical stability -- rinses away wastes
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7 Brain Ventricles Ventricles are Internal chambers within the CNS
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8 Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF is formed by the choroid plexuses and Circulates through the ventricle into The subarachnoid space of spinal cord and brain Fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi at the top of the skull.
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9 Clinical If CSF cannot circulate or drain properly a condition called hydro- cephalus (water on the brain) develops. fluid buildup causes increased pressure on the brain Surgically draining the ventricles and diverting the flow of CSF by an implanted shunt reduces the pressure After Before Structure? Structure?
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10 The Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) If blue dye is injected into the bloodstream tissues of the whole body EXCEPT the brain and spinal cord would turn blue. The Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB) prevents materials in the blood from entering the brain. Thereby protecting the brain and spinal cord from harm The BBB uses astrocytes
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11 Brain Stem Medulla Pons Midbrain Etc.
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12 Medulla Oblongata Cranial nerves (IX- XII) Heart rate, respiratory rate Adjusts blood vessel diameter Reflex centers for coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, and hiccupping.
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13 Pons Anterior bulge in the brainstem Pathways between cerebellum Relays nerve impulses related to voluntary skeletal movements from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum Cranial nerves V- VIII
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chapt14_ v811_ Brain - Chapter 14 The Central Nervous...

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