PSYCH 2AA3 (Dr. Cheryl Chow) Lecture 5+6 – Sept 13+16, 2019Genetic Bases of Child DevelopmentBiology of heredityoFather’s sperm & mother’s egg46 chromosomes (23 from each parent)oMeiosis: cell division resulting in gametesoMitosis: cell division resulting in bodily cellsoIn-vitro fertilization: artificial form of egg fertilization (injecting sperm from father and filter strongest sperms; inject into ovum)oAutosomes: first 22 pairs of chromosomesoSex chromosomes: 23rd pair (X / Y) – determines sex of offspringoDeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): code for specific genesoGenotype: complete set of genes can determine possible diseasesoPhenotype: physical, behavioural and psychological features (i.e. height, weight, eye colour, etc.)Single-gene inheritanceoPairs of alleles: specific form of gene, homozygous (same) or heterozygous (different) determined by genotypeoComplete dominance: Dominant allele: requires one or two phenotype(s) to show trait (i.e. brown eyes)Recessive allele: requires two phenotypes to show trait (i.e. blue eyes)oIncomplete dominance: two heterozygous alleles expressedi.e. sickle cell trait (blood cells are sickle-cell shaped difficulty carrying oxygen through body)oCommon phenotypes associated with single pairs of genesCurly vs straight hairDark vs blond hairType A or B vs Type O bloodRh-positive vs Rh-negative bloodThick vs thin lipsGenetic disordersoMany disorders triggered when child inherits two recessive allelesParents can be carrierso
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