CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY - CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY 1. Socialization is...

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CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY 1. Socialization is the way individuals develop their humanity and particular identities. Through socialization, one generation passes culture to the next 2. A century ago, people thought that most human behavior was guided by biological instinct. Today, we recognize that human behavior results mostly from nurture rather than nature 3. The permanently damaging effects of social isolation reveal that social experience is essential to human development 4. Sigmund Freud’s model of human personality has three parts: a. The id expresses innate human needs or drives (the life or death instincts) b. The superego represents internalized cultural values and norms c. The ego resolves competition between the demands of the ID and the restraints of the superego 5. Jean Piaget believed that human development reflects both biological maturation and increasing social experience. He identified FOUR stages of cognitive development: a. Sensorimotor b. Preoperational c. Concrete operational d. Formal operational 6. Laurence Kohlberg applied Piaget’s approach to moral development. Individuals first judge rightness in preconventional terms, according to their individual needs. Next, conventional moral reasoning takes account of parents’ attitudes and cultural norms. Finally, postconventional moral reasoning allows people to criticize society itself 7. Carol Gilligan discovered that males rely on abstract standards of rightness, whereas females
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at UNL.

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CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY - CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY 1. Socialization is...

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