EXAM 1 notes

EXAM 1 notes - 2|3|11 ANTHROPOLOGY | EXAM 1 I. Great Plains...

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2|3|11 ANTHROPOLOGY | EXAM 1 I. Great Plains Types of subsistence - Three Sisters: corn, beans, squash, tobacco - hunting/gathering o bison, not domesticated Extended Families - kin based o matrilineal: sisters with husbands that marry in o patrilineal: brothers with wives that marry in o some families stayed together - variations on tribes that were together throughout the year - tribes practiced exogamy and endogamy o exogamy: exits group | tribe to get married o endogamy: marry within group | tribe Military Society - separated by age, grade, and achievement Boundaries of Great Plains - Western o Rockies, Foothills - Northern Boundaries o Boreal Forest - Southern o Rio Grande to Arkansas River - Eastern Boundaries o Missouri and Mississippi Rivers - Northern Plains o Boreal Forest, Niobrara River - Central Plains o Niobrara river, Arkansas river - Southern Plains o Arkansas River, Rio Grande - Climate o Arctic, Gulf, Pacific II. People of North America Linguistics, Archaeology, Biology Origins - Lost tribe of Israel theory - Atlantis Theory - Grossis theory o Monogen esis (one creation)
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2|3|11 o Degeneration from white people - Laminites o When all races became white the world was going to end Historic Linguistics - language borrowing - transition period between two languages o hard boundaries are rare and are usually caused by an epidemic or war - 20% language change over a 500 year period - languages have stable categories o ex) pronouns: I, you, we, us, them o ex) body parts, base #s 1-10 - no written or documented tradition of languages in North America - codices = folded books o rebus system: pictorial representation problem: symbols have too many interpretations o only 7 exist today o most burned and few are translated Types of Communication found in North America (useful for memorization) Inca: Quipus o No idea how to read them Wampum o Woven belt shells, white and black Pictographs o Inscribed paintings Petroglyphs o Painted on Bison hide o Not text o Lack of written system or standardization - Greenberg o Started his work in West Africa o Took stable categories of words (such as numerical systems, body parts, pronouns) and started combining languages o Realized there were three clusters of related languages in North America: Amerind First and oldest cluster Diversified language Na Dene Less diversified language Eskimo-Aleut Least diversified o Most diverse language cluster considered the oldest o more closely related to each other than other languages in the world o Greenberg became involved with the first language spoken (proto language)
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2|3|11 o Generally use writing systems for this type of analysis Archaeology - tons of money spent and great competition to find early settlements - two views of first settlers o came over in a land bridge o came over in a boat Land Bridge Theory - Bearing Straight between Siberia and Alaska - Not stable after 15,000 - Possibly could’ve happened at 20,000 or 11,000
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EXAM 1 notes - 2|3|11 ANTHROPOLOGY | EXAM 1 I. Great Plains...

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