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Unformatted text preview: ANTHRO EXAM II - SOUTHERN PLAINS BISONS importance- estimated 40-200 million bison- lived about 20 years- males: large, 2000 lbs- females: 700-900 lbs- they dont see well but smell well - have screw worms, ticks, lice on them Herd Organization and Hunts- groups ranging from 5 to 100- pregnancy 9 months - big hunts: summer, bison mating - birth: nursed for about a year o milk, high butter milk; useful in the winter because of the high percentage of fat o adults at 4 years old- small herds in the fall, their prime- eat well; fatty; hides are in good condition- people went after calves o meat is tender o hides tanned easier o used for clothing and drawing- good for PEMMICAN o cut bison meat into small strips, pound it o lasts up to two years o big trading item o pounded finely, could add berries, mint, etc- 50% of its live weight will be used after killed o get more pounds of beefs from a male bison- successful hunt: 100 pounds and 1 hide per person- cut hide very carefully o split bison down belly and back- hide is heavy when dried (30 pounds) o successful at keeping you warm- good stuff = back fat and tongue Hunting Bison on Horseback- hunting bison on horseback can be dangerous- need a horse that can handle it- want bison to turn so you can shoot them with you arrow between their ribs- need to be really close to the bison; need a horse that wont get scared- horses are incredibly expensive o some people had other people hunt bison for them- Missouri people would try to get Bison on thin ice, bison would fall through, then the Missouri people would get the bison while theyre floating Horses- people learned how to ride horses from the Spanish, then taught others- most horses were used as pack animals, then for hunting- a Bison horse o worth 10 15 normal horses o highly valued- horse determined wealth - captives or young males handled the herd- trained horses in water- good for trading o Comanches would trick on trading They would show the good horse to settle the price or trade and then give them a shitty horse Women and men owned horses Way of life- teepees become larger o more hides o horses stayed in them - designs on teepees were all meaningful and merit worthy o have to earn the right to put up certain designs- one man and a number of wives o polygamy increases- 1830 destruction of Bison- for every 1 hide you assumed 5 bison died, lack of efficiency - huge market for bison bones o used for China o crushed up for fertilizer- early bison conservation- Black Feet o Mass harvesting technique o Had vision before hunt- demand for bison hides o industrialization rope for machinery - bison hunting parties o money makers o patriotic duty get rid of bison = get rid of Indians bum or salt their fields Pawnee- they knew doom was coming for them and bison- increase in honey bees Domestication- becoming more established- three sisters: maiz (corn), beans, squash o sunflowers very important medicinal qualities (rattlesnake bites, chest pains)...
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course ANTHRO 352 taught by Professor Mccullough during the Spring '11 term at UNL.
- Spring '11