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STUDY GUIDE-EXAM THREE: ANTH/ES 352 (McCollough) Sp. 11 I. Introduction to the Central Plains Boundary-Niobrara River to the Arkansas River. At one time, the following groups were unified: Ponca, Omaha, Ioway, Oto, Missouri, Quapaw. Seperated while crossing the river. Omaha are the upstream people. Live furthest north of this group. Santee were moved to Nebraska after an uprising in Minnesota. Some of the Winnebago in Wisconsin were moved onto the Omaha Reservation. Other groups that moved onto the Central Plains include the Arapaho and the Cheyenne. The Cheyenne became the most powerful population in the area. Many groups became involved in Ghost Dance (developed by Wovoka, who lived in the Great Basin area). The Pawnee brought back many of their practices through the Ghost Dance. II. Cheyenne Speak Algonquian language. The name for themselves translates to Human Beings or the Real People. Originally agriculturalists from the Lake Superior Region. Moved to the Great Plains in the late 1600s. Were told by a supernatural entity to look west and migrate. Initially attempted to maintain agricultural existence. Oral stories still mention water fowl, fishing, rice harvesting and that bison meat was initially viewed as nauseating. Became close with the Mandan. Ultimately pounded by the Ojibwa=Chippewa. Ojibwa chief Sugar massacred the Cheyenne village after most of the males had left to bison hunt. By early 1800s, Cheyenne totally nomadic except for the harvesting of tobacco. Gender roles strictly divided. Political Organization: Had 10 bands and the council of 44. Four headmen from each band served on the council for 10 years. The other 4 were picked and served until
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