Chapter_2_powerpoint - complete their valence shells....

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9/27/11 Matter Elements- Cannot be broken down chemically into simpler substances CHON make up 96% of living things Compounds- contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio
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9/27/11 Elements properties Atom The smallest unit of an element, has the following components Proton postive and in nucleus Neutro n neutral and in nucleus Electro n negative and outside of nucleus
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9/27/11 Neutral atom has equal numbers of electrons an protons Atomic Mass measured in daltons and is roughly equal to the sum of protons and neutrons
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9/27/11 Isotopes differ from each other in neutron number and therefore atomic mass Radioactivity energy or matter given off by unstable isotopes
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9/27/11 Shells have a characteristic energy level. Electron distribution determines the chemical behavior o an atom. An atom that has an incomplete outer shell, the valence shell, is reactive.
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9/27/11 Orbitals three dimensional spaces with specific shapes where electrons exist. They are components of the electron shells.
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9/27/11 Molecules Chemical bonds form when atoms interact and
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Unformatted text preview: complete their valence shells. Covalent bond form when pairs of electrons are shared. Molecules consist of two or more covalently bonded atoms. 9/27/11 Electronegativity The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond. When both atoms are the same, they share a nonpolar covalent Bond. Electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom the atoms share a polar covalent bond 9/27/11 Ion attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Anion- Negative ion Cation- Positive ion 9/27/11 Hydrogen bond an attraction between a hydrogen atom carrying a partial positive charge and an electronegative atom with a partialy negative charge 9/27/11 Vanderwalls interactions occur between transiently positive and negative regions of molecules. Determined by the position of its atoms valence orbitals. 9/27/11 Chemical Reactions Reversable All reactions are reversible Equilibrium reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course BIOL 1301 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at Lone Star College System.

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Chapter_2_powerpoint - complete their valence shells....

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