chapter_5_chart - Macromolecules are polymers, built from...

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Unformatted text preview: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers Monomers form larger molecules by dehydration reactions in which water molecules are released. Polymers Proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates are polymers, chains of monomers can disassemble by the revers process, hydrolysis. An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers Protein Monomer Bond Amino Acids Peptide Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Example Proteins enzymes structural proteins storage proteins transport proteins hormones receptor proteins motor proteins defense proteins Function Work Space catalyze chemical reactions provide structural support stores amino acids transport substances coordinate organismal response receive signals from outside cell function in cell movement protect against disease Nucleic Acids Monomer Bond Example Phosphodie Function Nucleotides ster Purines Adnine Guanine Nucleic acids store, Pyrimidines transmit, and help express hereditary Cytosine information Thymine Uracil (RNA only) DNA Stores heredity information RNA mRNA rRNA tRNA carries information to the ribosome Makes up the ribosome Carries the amino acids to the ribosome Work Space information Uracil (RNA only) tRNA Carries the amino acids to the ribosome Carbohydrates Monomer Bond Type Examples Functions Monosacchari Fuel; carbon des Glycosidic Monosaccharide sources that can be converted to other s Disaccharides: molecules or Lactose, combined into sucrose polymers Polysaccharides Cellulose Stregnthen plant (plants) cell walls Stores glucose for Stores glucose for Starch (plants) energy Glycogen energy Stregthens Chitin (animals exoskeletons and and fungi) fungal cell walls Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building materials Lipids Components Bond Ester Example Function Triacylglycerols( important energy source fats and oils): glycerol + 3 fatty acids lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules Work Space Unsatu Saturated rated Phospholipid: Form lipid bi­layers phosphate of membranes group + two fatty acids Steroids: four fused rings with Component of cell attached membranes. chemical groups Hormones Work Space Steroids: four fused rings with Component of cell attached membranes. chemical groups Hormones re released. Polymers n be built from a small Work Space Work Space Work Space Work Space v ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course BIOL 1301 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at Lone Star College System.

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