language_change_solutions - Linguistics 111 Ahn Szymanski...

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Linguistics 111, 11/13/09 Ahn, Szymanski, Yip 1 Historical linguistics practice problems Sound change types : Identify the following sound change types in the following examples from Indo-European languages. In each pair of examples, focus on the segment(s) in bold only. The form on the left indicates the original segment(s) before the change, and the form on the right indicates the segment(s) after the change. a) Sanskrit sn eha Pali sin eha ‘friendship’ insertion b) Old English hl ā f Modern English l oaf deletion c) English tria thl on (dialect) tria th[ ә ]l on insertion d) Latin vi du a [dw] Spanish vi ud a [wd] ‘widow’ metathesis e) Sanskrit sa pt a Pali sa tt a ‘seven’ assimilation f) Latin tu r tu r English tu r t l e dissimilation g) Italian mu nd o Sicilian mu nn u ‘world’ assimilation h) Old French c ire [ts] Modern French c ire [s] ‘wax’ deletion or weakening? i) Latin pa c are [k] Italian pa g are ‘to pay’ assimilation j) Latin mar e Portuguese mar ‘sea’ deletion k) Latin v ī c ī n i t ā s Spanish vecindad ‘neighborhood’ assimilation l) Old English (ic) sing e Modern English (I) sing deletion Middle Chinese : Mandarin and Hakka descended from a common ancestor, Middle Chinese (spoken during the 6 th through 10 th Centuries). For the data set below, do the following: A) Write out the sound correspondences for each cognate set and reconstruct the earlier Middle Chinese form (or proto-form ) for the word from which the cognates have descended. (Remember to use asterisks for the proto-forms!) B) Establish the sound changes that have affected each language. (Note
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language_change_solutions - Linguistics 111 Ahn Szymanski...

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