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C_Unit_3_Phase_Changes_K_2010-2011

C_Unit_3_Phase_Changes_K_2010-2011 - U ni t 3 E ner gy a nd...

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Unit 3: Unit 3: Energy and Energy and Phase Phase Changes_K Changes_K Chapter 13 Cypress Creek Chemistry
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Click box to view movie clip. States of Matter
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Phases States of substances are called phases when they coexist as physically distinct parts of a mixture, such as ice water. When energy is added to or taken away from a system, one phase can change into another.
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Phase Changes Melting/Freezing Changes between solid and liquid phases Vaporization/Condensation Changes between liquid and gas phases Sublimation/Deposition Changes directly between solid and gas phases
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Heat (Thermal) Energy Heat is a form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their difference in temperature Heat flows from hot to cold It can be absorbed or released Measured in units of calories or Joules
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Phase Changes Endothermic phase changes absorb energy Sublimation Vaporization Melting Exothermic phase changes release energy Deposition Condensation Freezing
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Vaporization Evaporation Only occurs at the surface of the liquid at room temperature Ex: Sweating cools the human body Boiling Occurs throughout the liquid Boiling point occurs when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure Ex: Boiling water Higher altitudes have lower atmospheric pressure, so lower boiling point
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Phase Diagrams Temperature and pressure control the phase of a substance. A phase diagram is a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows in which phase a substance exists under different conditions of temperature and pressure. A phase diagram has three regions, each a different phase and three curves that separate each phase. The points on the curves indicate conditions under which two phases coexist.
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Phase Diagrams Sublimation point Freezing point Boiling point
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Phase Diagrams Standard Pressure Line (1 atm, or equivalent) Normal Freezing Point Temp at which standard pressure meets the solid-liquid curve Normal Boiling Point Temp at which standard pressure meets the liquid-vapor curve Normal Boiling Point Normal Freezing Point STP
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