Test 1_Study Guide

Test 1_Study Guide - Study Guide for Test 1 ...

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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide for Test 1 ****This review guide is just a GUIDE. There can be material on the test that is not included on this review guide. Likewise, not everything on this review guide will be on the test. This GUIDE is a supplement to the PowerPoint slides/notes take in class/and textbook.***** 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. What is the difference between acute and chronic exercise? What are the 6 basic training principles? What do they each mean? What are the 3 types of muscle? What is an example of each? Know the location of the following: tendon, myofibril, muscle fiber, sarcolemma, transverse tubes, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum What is the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubules? What is the sliding filament theory? What are the names of the filaments in the sliding filament theory? What is another name for the thick filaments? Thin filaments? What are the 2 proteins that are fixed to actin? What are there functions? During a muscle contraction, what does calcium bind to? What is the neurotransmitter used in a muscular contraction? What are the steps in a muscle contraction? What is the tilt of the myosin heat called? What enzyme splits ATP? What are the 3 muscle fiber types? Rank order the following for each muscle fiber type: Fibers per motor neuron, motor neuron size, nerve conduction velocity, contraction time, type of myosin ATPase; sarcoplasmic reticulum development; motor unit force; aerobic capacity; anaerobic capacity How/why do fast twitch fibers develop more force than slow twitch fibers? What determines fiber type? What does a motor unit compose of? Explain the ramp- like recruitment of fibers. What angle during the bicep curl is ideal for developing force? Why? Define Power; endurance; and strength How do you get stronger? How does that change depending on how long you have been training? What is the difference between transient and chronic muscle hypertrophy? Who would you train for strength? Muscle endurance? Power? Muscle size? What are the 3 types of muscle contractions? What is DOMS? What causes it? What happens to strength while experiencing DOMS? What about glycogen storage? Muscle size is a balance between what 2 processes? How does initial strength play in to one’s ability to increase muscle strength? What are the 3 main energy substrates? Where is carbohydrate (glycogen) stored? What 2 molecules is fat broken down into? What is the difference between kilocalories, calories, and Calories? What is the energy capacity of 1 gram of carbohydrate, fat, and protein? Define gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, lipogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis. What does ATP break down into? What does an enzyme do? 39. What are the 3 main energy systems called? 40. Describe the contribution of each energy system towards energy production when exercising anywhere from 10 sec to 5 min. 41. Describe the ATP- PCr system. 42. If exercising maximally, how long can the ATP- PCr provide energy? 43. How many ATP come out of 1 turn of the ATP- PCr system? 44. Regarding creatine supplementation….is it effective? How much does it increase muscle strength? a. Can you take creatine without doing anything else and get stronger? b. Does creatine help you the same regardless of your starting strength? c. At what phase of training does creatine seem to help the most? d. Does creatine help even after short term usage? e. Creatine may help you get stronger because you are able to perform higher volume workouts f. What muscle fibers does creatine effect? g. What does creatine do to total body water? h. What does creatine do in relation to muscle glycogen levels? i. Does creatine effect protein synthesis, breakdown, or both? What direction for each? j. What is the most important determinant for predicting how much creatine will get into the muscle? k. What is the link between blood levels of creatine versus muscle levels? l. Does creatine improve spring performance? 45. What is glycolysis called when there is no oxygen? With oxygen? What is the primary difference between the two (difference in molecules that are produced) 46. How many ATP are directly produced with glycolysis? How many with starting with glycogen? With glucose? 47. Where does glycogen occur? 48. What is the only food source that can be used for glycolysis 49. What are the 2 primary reasons lactic acid is bad? 50. Does lactic acid cause muscle soreness? 51. About how many steps is glycolysis? 52. Compare the 3 energy systems. What are the positives and negatives of each? 53. What location in the cell is most of the ATP produced during oxidative phosphorylation? 54. Does the oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen? 55. What are the 3 processes of oxidative phosphorylation? 56. What is pyruvic acid converted to with aerobic glycolysis? Anaerobic glycolysis? 57. How many ATP are directly formed from the Kreb’s cycle? 58. What are the 2 energy molecules that move Hydrogen to the electron transport chain? 59. What is the common molecule that carbohydrates, fats, and protein must be broken down to in order to enter the Krebs cycle? 60. About how many ATP are formed in oxidative phosphorylation? 61. Of the 3 processes in oxidative phosphorylation which one results in the most ATP directly produced? 62. Which requires more oxygen to breakdown fat or carbohydrate? 63. Can protein be used for energy? 64. What is Vo2? 65. What is RER? 66. What fuel source are you using if RER is 1.00? 0.70? 0.85? 67. What is oxygen deficit? 68. What is EPOC? 69. What system(s) is being used for energy during oxygen deficit? 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. What is Vo2max? What are the 4 physiological components that dictate endurance performance success? What are the different components of Vo2max? What is lactate threshold? What system is energy system is producing lactate? What is efficiency? What does specificity have to do with efficiency? What is cardiac output? What components make up cardiac output? What is stroke volume? What components make up stroke volume? What happens to HR as exercise intensity increases? What happens to stroke volume as exercise intensity increases? What are the 3 factors that regulate stroke volume? As stroke volume goes up during exercise, is it an increase in end diastolic volume or a decrease in end systolic volume? What happens to cardiac output as exercise intensity increases? What is A- v o2 difference? What happens to a- v o2 diff as exercise intensity increases? Are changes in a- v O2 diff with increasing exercise intensity due to arterial o2 content going up or venous o2 content going down? What running event is most correlated to lactate threshold? How long does it take to recover the following after exercise: muscle phosphagens, muscle glycogen, removal of lactic acid, reduction in EPOC What is BMR and RMR? What is the difference? What factors effecting BMR? What factors influence energy costs? What are some general causes of fatigue? What muscle fiber types deplete the most glycogen? Why? How long does muscle glycogen take to deplenish? ...
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