HD final study guide - HD 1150 Final Study Guide Fall 2009...

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HD 1150 Final Study Guide Fall 2009 Berk, Ch 10, pp. 365-407: Describe the stage of initiative versus guilt, the psychological conflict in early childhood according to Erikson’s theory. Initiative vs guilt- the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through the development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and or guilt ridden Young children have a new sense of purposefulness0 eager to tackle new tasks Play is a means through which young kids learn about themselves and their social world Describe some characteristics of preschoolers’ self-concepts. Preschooler’s self concepts are very concrete “I’m Tommy. I got this new red shirt. I can brush my teeth. I’m 4” Observable characteristics- name, physical appearance, possessions, everyday behaviors Describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes Explain how cultural variations in personal storytelling with parents may be related to differences in self-concept in early childhood. Cultural differences exist in parents’ selection and interpretation of events in these early narratives—affects the way children come to view themselves Chinese parents told long stores about child’s misdeeds Irish American stories referred to transgressions, parents downplayed their seriousness North Americans believe that favorable self esteem is crucial How is high self-esteem related to initiative in early childhood? High self esteem contributes greatly to preschoolers’ initiative during a period in which they must master many new skill By age 3, children whose parents patiently encourage while offering information about how to succeed are enthusiastic and highly motivated Children with a history of parental criticism of their worth give up easily How is empathy different from sympathy? Empathy- serves as an important motivator of prosocial, altruistic behavior --actions that benefit another person without any expected reward o FEELING WITH another person or responding emotionally in a similar way – does not yield acts of kindness but escalates into personal distress 1
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o To reduce these feelings, the child focuses on his own anxiety rather than on the person in need, so, empathy does not lead to sympathy - feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight Describe the kinds of play typically seen in early childhood. Nonsocial activity- unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play Parallel play- limited form of social participation; child plays near other children but does not try to influence their behavior Associative play- true social interaction; children engage in separate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on behavior Cooperative play- children orient toward a common goal Functional play- simple, repetitive motor movements with or without objects (running around a room, rolling a car back and forth)
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HD final study guide - HD 1150 Final Study Guide Fall 2009...

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