Prelim 1 Study Guide

Prelim 1 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Chapter...

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HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 - History, Theory, and Research Strategies Theory- An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. Basic Issues in child development- 1) Continuous or Discontinuous Development? Continuous - gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with Discontinuous - new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific time -A series of developmental steps, each with unique features - stages - qualitative stages in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development 2) One Course of Development or Many? - Same sequence of development or many-layered and complex? Children grow up in distinct contexts - unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change 3) Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture? Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development? nature-nurture controversy -Inborn biological givens or complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth? - stability vs. change Factors that Seem to Offer Protection from Stressful life events (resilience)- 1) Personal Characteristics - A child’s biologically endowed characteristics can reduce exposure to risk or lead to experiences that compensate for early stressful events 2) A Warm Parental Relationship- A close relationship with at least one parent who provides warmth, high expectations, monitoring the child’s activities, and organized home fosters resilience. 3) Social Support Outside the Immediate Family - Strong bond to a competent, caring adult 4) Community Resources and Opportunities - Good schools, health care and services, libraries, and recreation centers foster both parent’s and children’s well-being.
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Views of Children Medieval Europe - Separate period of life, young teenagers not even mature, 14 th century- manuals offering advice on child care, laws recognized children needed protection, sometimes possessed by devil or innocent angels John Locke - behaviorism, tabula rasa : “blank state” Children begin as nothing and their characters are shaped by experience. Use of praise and approval and opposed physical punishment. Believed continuous development, nurture, many courses of development and change at later ages Jean Jacques Rousseau - Noble savages: naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth. Concept of stage and maturation - genetically determined naturally unfolding course of growth. Discontinuous, stagewise, single path, nature G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gesell - founder of the child-study movement, based on evolutionary ideas. Normative approach
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Prelim 1 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Chapter...

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