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101+lecture+18 - Justice Justice Last time(s Last time(s...

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Unformatted text preview: Justice Justice Last time(s) Last time(s) Plato I do not believe that there is [any just city] anywhere on earth? In heaven, I replied, there is laid up a pattern of it… which he who desires may behold, and beholding, may set his own house in order. But whether such a one exists, or ever will exist in fact, is no matter; for he will live after the manner of that city, having nothing to do with any other. (Republic, Bk. 9 – not in reader) Last time(s) Last time(s) King – Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. – We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. – Elements of nonviolent direct action campaign – Prophetic political critique King: Prophetic political critique King: Prophetic political critique Prophets and extremists Socrates Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego Early Christians Boston Tea Party Fighters against Nazis and Communism Church as thermostat, not thermometer John Rawls (1921­2002) John Rawls (1921­2002) Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971) Rawls, Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well­arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971) Rawls, Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason, justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971) Rawls, The original position – People are rational – People are mutually disinterested – People have the capacity for a sense of justice Veil of ignorance Veil of ignorance It seems reasonable and generally acceptable that no one should be advantaged or disadvantaged by natural fortune, or social circumstances in the choice of principles. It also seems widely agreed that it should be impossible to tailor principles to the circumstances of one’s own case….The aim is to rule out those principles that it would be rational to propose for The veil of ignorance and justice as The veil of ignorance and justice as fairness Since all are similarly situated and no one is able to design principles of justice to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain. (23) The two principles The two principles 1. (Principle of equal liberty.) Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. 2. (Difference principle.) Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage; and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all. (32) [NOTE SERIAL OR LEXICAL ORDERING] The first principle The first principle Political liberty (the right to vote and to be eligible for public office) together with freedom of speech and assembly; liberty of conscience and freedom of thought; freedom of the person along with the right to hold (personal) property; and freedom from arbitrary arrest and seizure as defined by the concept of the rule of law (32) Amartya Sen (1933­ ) Amartya Sen (1933­ ) Sen on global justice Sen on global justice Globalizing Rawls – Grand universalism – Nationalistic particularism – Sen’s alternative: “plural affiliation” Sen on “plural affiliation” Sen on “plural affiliation” The starting point of this approach…can be the recognition of the fact that we all have multiple identities, and that each of these identities can yield concerns and demands that can significantly supplement, or seriously compete with, other concerns and demands arising from other identities. Sen on global justice Sen on global justice Individuals live and operate in a world of institutions, many of which operate across borders. Our opportunities and our prospects depend crucially on what institutions exist and how they function. Institutions as global actors Institutions as global actors Even though different commentators have chosen to focus on particular institutions (such as the market, the democratic system, the media or the public distribution system), we have to consider them all to be able to see what they can do, individually or jointly. Many of these institutions – not just the market mechanism – cut vigorously across national boundaries and do not operate through national polities. ...
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