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101+lecture+14 - Marx and Engels The Communist...

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Unformatted text preview: Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848) (1848) Wrap up Adam Smith Wrap 1776 – The Wealth of Nations – The Declaration of Independence Controversies over transformative Controversies legislation legislation – Social Security – Civil Rights – Medicare/Medicaid – Health care Health Karl Marx (1818-1883) Karl Born 28 years after Smith’s death Industrial capitalism Collaboration with Friedrich Engels Congratulatory telegram to Lincoln Died London 1883 International Workingmens’ Association to Abraham Lincoln (1865), authored by Marx Abraham We congratulate the American people upon your reelection by a large majority. If resistance to the Slave election Power was the reserved watchword of your first election, the triumphant war cry of your re-election is Death to Slavery….The workingmen of Europe feel sure that, as the American War of Independence initiated a new era of ascendancy for the middle class, so the American Antislavery War will do for the working classes. They consider it an earnest of the epoch to come that it fell to the lot of Abraham Lincoln, the single-minded son of the working class, to lead his country through the matchless struggle for the rescue of an enchained race and the reconstruction of a social world. reconstruction Class struggle Class The history of all hitherto existing society The is the history of class struggles. is – Class struggle as historical reality – Class struggle as economic analysis – Class struggle as undergirding political Class reality The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie (11). whole Class struggle: the bourgeoisie (control the means of production) (control Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, Our possesses…this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other — Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. each The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the The ideas of its ruling class. (28) ideas The bourgeoisie The The bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarce one The hundred years, has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. Subjection of nature’s forces to man, machinery, application of chemistry to industry and agriculture, steamchemistry navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, navigation, clearinig of whole continents for cultivation, canalization of rivers, whole populations conjured out of the ground – what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labor? (14) forces Class struggle: the proletariat (lack control of the means of production) control In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is In developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed — a class of labourers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital. These labourers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity, like every other article of commerce, and are consequently exposed to all the vicissitudes of competition, to all the fluctuations of the market (15). (15) The Communist Party: internationalism, abolition of bourgeois property of The immediate aim of the Communists is The the same as that of all the other proletarian parties: Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat. (22) (22) The proletarians have nothing to lose but The their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite! Working The Communist Party: internationalism, abolition of bourgeois property abolition The distinguishing feature of Communism The is not the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property…. but [B]ourgeois private property is the final [B]ourgeois and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few. (23) (23) The Communist Party: internationalism, abolition of bourgeois property abolition Communism deprives no man of the Communism power to appropriate the products of society; all that it does is to deprive him of the power to subjugate the labor of others by means of such appropriation (25). by Looking to the future Looking In place of the old bourgeois society, with In its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all. for Objections, and replies Objections, Does it require deep intuition to comprehend that Does man’s ideas, views, and conceptions, in one word, man’s consciousness, changes with every change in the conditions of his material existence, in his social relations and in his social life? What else does the history of ideas prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production is changed? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class. (28) ever ...
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