101+lecture+10 - Federalists and Anti­federalists...

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Unformatted text preview: Federalists and Anti­federalists Federalists and Anti­federalists READINGS FOR P.S. 101 READINGS FOR P.S. 101 THE ESSENTIAL FEDERALIST AND ANTI­FEDERALIST PAPERS, ED. WOOTTON (page numbers in parentheses) Federalist Papers 1 (140­143) 9­10 (162­174) 23 (195­199) 51 (245­250) 78 (283­289) 85 (310­316) Anti­federalists Speech of Patrick Henry (25­41) Cato 4, 5 (58­65) Brutus 6, 11 (74­86) Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists and Antifederalists Brief timeline American Revolution 1775­1783 Articles of Confederation adopted 1777, went into effect 1781 Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America". Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare… Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists and Antifederalists Brief timeline Philadelphia Convention May­September 1787 Constitution ratified June 1788, went into effect March 1789 The Federalist Papers: The Federalist Papers: Ends and goals of government the vigor of government is essential to the security of liberty (Federalist 1) The principal purposes to be answered by union are these – the common defense of the members; the preservation of the public peace as well against internal convulsions as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States; the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries. (Federalist 23) Avoiding tyranny: Government and Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 48, 51) [Each branch needs] the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others…. ….Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. Avoiding tyranny: Government and Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 47, 51) It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions. (Federalist 51) Avoiding tyranny: Government and Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 47, 51) A mere demarcation on parchment of the constitutional limitations of the several departments, is not a sufficient guard against those encroachments which lead to a tyrannical concentration of all the powers of government in the same hands (Federalist 48) [C]ontrive the interior structure of the government as that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of keeping each other in their proper places (Federalist 51) Faction (Federalist 10) Faction (Federalist 10) A number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community. The roots of faction (Federalist 10) The roots of faction (Federalist 10) A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre­eminence and power…have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co­operate for their common good….But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. The persistence of faction The persistence of faction As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. The diversity in the faculties of men, from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors, ensues a division of the society into different interests and parties. (Federalist 10) Strategies for addressing factions Strategies for addressing factions (Federalist 10) either the existence of the same passion or interest in a majority at the same time must be prevented, or the majority, having such coexistent passion or interest, must be rendered, by their number and local situation, unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression.. Strategies for addressing factions Strategies for addressing factions (Federalist 10) Legislative strategy refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations Strategies for addressing factions Strategies for addressing factions (Federalist 10) Size of the political community Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Federalists: Wrapping up Federalists: Wrapping up Concluding remarks: Constitution will Strengthen central government Arrange internal structure of government to frustrate attempts to monopolize power (veto, veto override, judiciary, etc.) Preserve fundamental lesson of revolutionary struggle (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness): don’t throw away gains of Revolution out of inordinate fear of central authority. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course POLITICAL 101 taught by Professor Kubik during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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