101+lecture+9 - READINGS FOR P.S. 101 READINGS THE...

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Unformatted text preview: READINGS FOR P.S. 101 READINGS THE ESSENTIAL FEDERALIST AND ANTI-FEDERALIST PAPERS, ED. WOOTTON (page numbers in parentheses) ED. Federalist Papers – – – – – – 1 (140-143) 9-10 (162-174) 23 (195-199) 51 (245-250) 78 (283-289) 85 (310-316) Anti-federalists – Speech of Patrick Henry (25-41) – Cato 4, 5 (58-65) – Brutus 6, 11 (74-86) A good part of the struggles of mankind center around the single task of finding an expedient accommodation – one, that is, that will bring happiness – between [claims of individual liberty] and the cultural claims of the group; and one of the problems that touches the fate of humanity is whether such an accommodation can be reached by means of some particular form of civilization or whether this conflict is irreconcilable (Civilization and its Discontents, irreconcilable 50). 50). Civilization and its Discontents Civilization “iit is impossible to overlook the extent to which t civilization is built up upon a renunciation of instinct…it presupposes preicsely the non-satisfaction…of powerful instincts” (52) instincts” What are its discontents? – Ties of family vs. ties of community – The renunciation of instinctual satisfaction “acceptable” forms of sexual gratification “Love your neighbor” Men are not gentle creatures who want to be loved, and who at the most can defend themselves if they are attacked; they are, on the contrary, creatures among whose instinctual endowments is to be reckoned a powerful share of aggressiveness. As a result, their neighbor is for them not only a potential helper or sexual object, but also someone who tempts them to satisfy their aggressiveness on him, to exploit his capacity for work without compensation, to seize his possessions, to humiliate him, to cause him pain, to torture and to kill him. Homo homini lupus. (69) lupus. Civilization and its Discontents Civilization How do people deal with the discontents? – Religion Religion – Love – Other “palliative measures” Civilization and its Discontents Civilization The problem: The problem before us is how to get rid of the The greatest hindrance to civilization – namely, the constitutional inclination of humans to be aggressive toward each other. (108) aggressive Last paragraph of the book Last What to do? The fateful question for the human species The seems to me to be whether and to what extent their cultural development will succeed in mastering the disturbance to their communal life by the human instinct of aggression and self-destruction…. of Men have gained control over the forces of nature to such an extent that with their help they would have no difficulty in exterminating one another to the last man. They know this, and hence comes a large part of their current unrest, their unhappiness and their mood of anxiety…. unhappiness And now it is to be expected that the other of the two 'Heavenly Powers'... eternal Eros, will make an effort to reassert himself in the struggle with his equally immortal adversary. But who can foresee with what success and with what result? Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists Brief timeline – American Revolution 1775-1783 American – Articles of Confederation adopted 1777, went Articles into effect 1781 into Articles of Confederation Articles The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The The United States of America". Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare… mutual Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists Brief timeline – Philadelphia Convention May-September Philadelphia 1787 1787 – Constitution ratified June 1788, went into Constitution effect March 1789 effect The Federalist Papers The Alexander Hamilton – – – – senior aide to George Washington during the war Served in the Continental Congress served in the New York Legislature (later) the nation’s first Treasury Secretary James Madison James – – – served in the Virginia state legislature served Served in the Continental Congress (with Thomas Jefferson), author of Virginia Statute for Religious (with Freedom Freedom – (later) fourth president of the United States. John Jay – – – – president of the Continental Congress ambassador to Spain and France ambassador (later) first Chief Justice of the United States (later) (later) Governor of New York (later) The Federalist Papers The Ends and goals of government (Federalist 23) The principal purposes to be answered by union The are these – the common defense of the members; the preservation of the public peace as well against internal convulsions as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States; the superintendence of our intercourse, political and commercial, with foreign countries. commercial, Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 47, 51) human Avoiding tyranny – A mere demarcation on parchment of the mere constitutional limitations of the several departments, is not a sufficient guard against those encroachments which lead to a tyrannical concentration of all the powers of government in the same hands (Federalist 48) 48) – contrive the interior structure of the government as contrive that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of keeping each other in their proper places (Federalist 51) proper Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 47, 51) human Government and human nature – [Each branch needs] the necessary [Each constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others…. resist ….Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place (Federalist 51) place Avoiding tyranny: Government and human nature (Federalist 47, 51) human It may be a reflection on human nature, that such It devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions. (Federalist 51 necessity Faction (Federalist 10) Faction Definition: – A number of citizens, whether amounting to a number majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community (Federalist 10) (Federalist The persistence of faction The As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is As at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. The diversity in the faculties of men, from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors, ensues a division of the society into different interests and parties. (Federalist 10) interests The roots of faction The A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, zeal concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good….But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. (Federalist 10) 10) Strategies for addressing factions (Federalist 10) (Federalist either the existence of the same passion or interest in a either majority at the same time must be prevented, or the majority, having such coexistent passion or interest, must be rendered, by their number and local situation, unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression. oppression. to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them to through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations. considerations. Strategies for addressing factions (Federalist 10) (Federalist Extend the sphere, and you take in a Extend greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. with ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course POLITICAL 101 taught by Professor Kubik during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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