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Unformatted text preview: Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, Part I: Of Man
Leviathan The desires, and other passions of men, are in themselves no sin (ch 13). The ill condition, which man by mere nature is actually placed in, though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the passions, and partly in his reason (ch 13). The state of nature, natural The state of nature, natural right, and natural law State of nature A state of being (state of nature ≠ state of New Jersey) International relations and “primitive” people as partial evidence? Contrasting function (state of nature as lacking something that politics provides) The state of nature, natural The state of nature, natural right, and natural law Natural right (selfpreservation) Natural law (seek peace)
That every man, ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek, and use, all helps, and advantages of war….(ch 14)
Do not that to another, which thou wouldest not have done to thyself (ch 15) Part II: Of Commonwealth
Part II: Of Commonwealth Covenants, without the sword, are but words, and of no strength to secure a man at all (ch 17). Part II: Of Commonwealth, ch Part II: Of Commonwealth, ch 17
The only way to erect such a common power, as may be able to defend them from the invasion of foreigners, and the injuries of one another, and thereby to secure them [so that] by their own industry and by the fruits of the earth, they may nourish themselves and live contentedly… (is what…?) Leviathan, ch 17 continued
…is, to confer all their power and strength upon one man, or upon one assembly of men, that may reduce all their wills… unto one will….and therein to submit their wills, every one to his will, and their judgments to his judgment (ch. 17) The social contract and the The social contract
sovereign Multiple sources of danger (from
foreigners, from each other)
foreigners, Sovereign is not necessarily one person;
can be a body of people.
can Contract is between people, NOT
between people and the sovereign.
People contract with each other to form
sovereign. Contract – between people, not Contract – between people, not between people and sovereign [The covenant is] given to him they make
sovereign, by covenant only of one to
another, and not of him to any one of
them (chapter 18)
[See also Review and Conclusion] “the
mutual relation between protection and
obedience” Hobbesian sovereignty and the Hobbesian sovereignty and the preservation of peace
The office of the sovereign…consists in the end for which he was trusted with the sovereign power, namely the procuration of the safety of the people, to which he is obliged by the law of nature…. (safety, meaning what…?) (ch 30) Leviathan, ch 30 continued
…not…a bare preservation, but…all other contentments of life…. And this is intended should be done…by a general providence, contained in public instruction, both of doctrine and example; and in the making and executing of good laws to which individual persons may apply their own cases. (ch 30) Hobbesian sovereignty and the Hobbesian sovereignty and the preservation of peace [In the state of nature] no place for industry… no…commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short (ch 13). Hobbes’s definition of liberty
Hobbes’s definition of liberty
Liberty: “the absence of external impediments” (ch 21) Objections?
Objections? All men are by nature provided of notable multiplying glasses (that is their passions and selflove) through which, every little payment appears a great grievance; but are destitute of those prospective glasses (namely moral and civil science), to see afar off the miseries that hang over them, and cannot without such payments be avoided. (ch. 19) ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course POLITICAL 101 taught by Professor Kubik during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '11