Chapter 6 - Deviance.pptx - SOC 100 CHAPTER 6 Tyler...

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SOC 100: CHAPTER 6Tyler AndersonPurdue University
SOCIAL DEVIANCEBroadly defined, social deviancerefers to any behavior that goes against established norms Informal deviance: Minor infractions that do not violate written laws, but go against social normsFormal deviance: infractions against formal laws; crimeDeviance in any form usually leads to some type of social punishmentDeviance is also a fluid category, depending on various social contexts
FUNCTIONALIST APPROACHES Remember, functionalist perspectives attempt to determine how a specific social institution functions to help keep society “healthy”Mechanical solidarity: social cohesion based in sameness Organic solidarity: social cohesion based on mutual interdependence Social cohesion (solidarity) helps develop what Durkheim called the collective conscience, or the set of common norms and beliefs within a societyDurkheim and a “society of saints”
FUNCTIONALIST APPROACHESAccording to Durkheim, challenges to the collective conscience must be addressedWhen we address these challenges, we reassert the moral order in society The way that these deviations are addressed depends on the type of solidarityMechanical solidarity– more punitive punishments
FUNCTIONALIST APPROACHESOrganic solidaritymore restitutive punishmentsSanctions are individually basedFocus on repairing social relationships between individualsIn the US today, we can see both punitive and restitutive forms of punishment
SOCIAL CONTROLSocial control: the mechanisms that cause people in a society to abide by social normsSocial sanctions refer to reactions to different types of social behavior that are used to either to reinforce or punish these behaviors Formal sanctionswritten rules that govern behaviorInformal sanctionsthe unwritten rules that govern social life
DURKHEIM AND SUICIDEDurkheim attempted to show that even highly personal acts, like suicide, had strong social components

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