(c)The acyl group in 1-phenyl-1-propanone is meta-directing; the carbonyl is attached directly tothe ring. The product is 1-(m-nitrophenyl)-1-propanone.12.15Writing the structures out in more detail reveals that the substituent G1N(CH3)3lacks the unsharedelectron pair of .This unshared pair is responsible for the powerful activating effect of an group. On theother hand, the nitrogen in G1N(CH3)3is positively charged and in that respect resembles the nitro-gen of a nitro group. We expect the substituent G1N(CH3)3to be deactivating and meta-directing.12.16The reaction is a Friedel–Crafts alkylation in which 4-chlorobenzyl chloride serves as the carboca-tion source and chlorobenzene is the aromatic substrate. Alkylation occurs at the positions ortho andpara to the chlorine substituent of chlorobenzene.12.17(b)Halogen substituents are ortho, para-directing, and the disposition in m-dichlorobenzene issuch that their effects reinforce each other. The major product is 2,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene.
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