(h)Pyridine reacts with electrophiles at C-3. It is less reactive than benzene, and the carbocationintermediate is less stable than the corresponding intermediate formed from benzene.12.24(a)Toluene is more reactive than chlorobenzene in electrophilic aromatic substitution reac-tions because a methyl substituent is activating but a halogen substituent is deactivating.Both are ortho, para-directing, however. Nitration of toluene is faster than nitration ofchlorobenzene.Faster:Slower:(b)Afluorine substituent is not nearly as strongly deactivating as a trifluoromethyl group. Thereaction that takes place is Friedel–Crafts alkylation of fluorobenzene.Strongly deactivated aromatic compounds do not undergo Friedel
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