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Lock++2003++The+Doping+Ban - 02_IRS articles 38/4 9:31 AM...

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THE DOPING BAN Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbophobia Rebecca Ann Lock University of Alberta, Canada Abstract Many different articles have been written about doping in sport, but only relatively recently has there been a significant interest in the effects of doping bans and the rhetoric surround- ing them. Several analyses have suggested that doping bans have the effect of promoting a sex and/or gender social order. This article continues the logic of these analyses, but claims that this social order is specifically heterosexual. Butler’s heterosexual matrix is used to critique the subjugation of sexuality in these sex/gender analyses, and to assert that sexuality is implicated in the construction of sex and gender. Following Butler’s understanding of sex, gender and sexuality as mutually dependent on one another this article proceeds to illustrate that female dopers are one category of women who disrupt the heterosexual matrix. It is suggested that the dislike of female dopers is similar to the dislike of lesbians and women who are considered ‘ugly’, for such female athletes fail to meet the criteria of heterosexual femininity. This article argues that doping is an ethical issue that should also consider athletes and non-athletes who are affected by the implications of anti-doping attitudes and bans. Key words • doping • heterosexual femininity • heterosexual matrix • sexuality • ugliness [P]olicing gender is sometimes a way of securing heterosexuality. (Butler, 1990: xii) There have been many different kinds of papers written about doping in sport. It is only relatively recently that questions have been asked about what effects doping bans have had (Black, 1996; Black and Pape, 1997; Burke, 1998; Burke and Roberts, 1997; Burke and Symons, 1999; Davis and Delano, 1992). Besides attempting, but clearly failing, to stop drug use in sport, the doping ban has been shown to have better success in promoting a sex or gender order (Burke, 1998; Burke and Roberts, 1997; Burke and Symons, 1999; Davis and Delano, 1992). Like Burke and Roberts (1997), I contend that, by looking at examples of women who are disliked for similar reasons to female dopers, we can appreciate why doping harshly grates on some people’s sensibilities. Parallels, then, will be drawn between female dopers, ‘unattractive’ women, and lesbians, because they are all disliked for how they contravene heterosexual femininity. This analysis builds upon those that suggest that the doping ban functions to promote a sex/gender order, and it asserts that this social order is distinctly heterosexual. My article focuses on female dopers, for like Burke and Roberts (1997), I think female dopers pose more of a threat to the dominant social order than male INTERNATIONAL REVIEW FOR THE SOCIOLOGY OF SPORT 38/4(2003) 397–411 397 © Copyright ISSA and SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi) www.sagepublications.com [1012–6902 (200312) 38:4;397–411; 038458]
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dopers do. This is manifested in the lesser response of disgust for male dopers.
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Lock++2003++The+Doping+Ban - 02_IRS articles 38/4 9:31 AM...

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