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Giulianotti_2009_Risk+and+Sport

Giulianotti_2009_Risk+and+Sport - Sociology of Sport...

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540 The author is with the School of Applied Social Science, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Sociology of Sport Journal, 2009, 26, 540-556 © 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc. Risk and Sport: An Analysis of Sociological Theories and Research Agendas Richard Giulianotti University of Durham Risk has been a prominent keyword in public and academic spheres since the early 1990s. Discourses of risk assessment and management now underpin a vast range of professional, social and political domains, from the planning of children’s leisure to global diplomacy on nuclear proliferation. Similar to “cultural” and “global” turns, we may speak of a “risk turn” that marks an epistemological and ontological step-change from the early 1990s onwards in social sciences. Le risque a été un mot clé crucial dans les sciences sociales depuis la fin des années 1980 même si la théorie du risque a depuis été sous-utilisée en sociologie du sport. Cet article contribue à remplir ce fossé en examinant de façon critique différents types de théorie du risque et la façon dont ils peuvent être développés et utilisés par des sociologues du sport. Quatre catégories de théorisations du risque sont examinées : 1) le calcul du risque, 2) les thèmes de risque dans l’hédonisme, le volontarisme et la transcendance, 3) le risque et les (sous)cultures et 4) le risque et la modernisation. Chaque catégorie contient plusieurs types de théorisation. Par le biais de cette discussion, cet article explore les écrits d’éminents théoriciens sociaux et de chercheurs dans le champ du risque, notamment Baudrillard, Beck, Douglas, Foucault, Lash, Luhmann, Lyng, Rose, Slovic, Tulloch et Wynne. L’article se conclut en suggérant une synthèse conceptuelle de Beck et Foucault, et en explorant la façon dont les tendances futures dans l’analyse du risque pourraient influer sur la sociologie du sport. In the sociology of sport, risk analysis has been used in the investigation of particular topics. The most extensive engagements have examined “extreme”, high-risk or adventure sports, with reference to themes such as social psychological motivation and societal transformation (e.g., LeBreton, 2000; Lyng, 1990, 2005, 2008), and cultural identities and social stratification (Coleman, 2002; Fletcher, 2008; Kay & Laberge, 2002). Arguably, some explorations of extreme and lifestyle sports have deployed risk as a “taken-for-granted” term, displaying relatively little engagement with social scientific theorizations of risk (cf. Rinehart & Sydnor, 2003; Wheaton, 2004). Elsewhere, studies of athlete violence, pain and injury have drawn varyingly upon risk themes, though rarely upon risk theory per se (e.g., Donnelly,
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Risk and Sport 541 2004; Howe, 2003; McTear, 1994; Pike & Maguire, 2003; Young, 1993). Perhaps most notably, the Sociology of Sport Journal has been a prominent venue for risk- informed analyses of sport and class, gender, childhood and fitness inter alia (e.g., Fletcher, 2008; Laurendeau, 2008; McDermott, 2007; Safai, 2003). Nevertheless, I would argue that risk analysis remains an underutilized resource for sociologists of sport. Indeed, the sociology of sport has yet to witness the emergence of a network
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