Intro to Psych, Module 23

Intro to Psych, Module 23 - Learning: Module 23 What is...

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Learning: Module 23 What is learning? o Changes in behavior and/or thought in response to experience. o Learning occurs because animals (including humans) need to adapt to their environments. How do we learn? o Aristotle, Locke, & Hume theorized that we learn by association We learn by through experiences of which events occur in sequence o If we repeat a behavior in an environment, the environment becomes a trigger for the behavior sleep posture associated with the context of bed eating popcorn associated with the context of a theater psychological component of smoking habits Associative Learning o Animals learn associatively too sea slugs squirted with water withdraw gills, but will habituate to squirts (i.e., withdraw less the more you squirt) if you pair a squirt of water with an electric shock, response grows stronger instead of weaker Some Terms o Conditioning – the process of learning associations o Classical conditioning – associating 2 stimuli to anticipate events o Operant conditioning – associating a response (a behavior we perform) with its consequences (rewards or punishments we get for that behavior) o Observational learning – learning a behavior just by watching it performed o Although both humans and animals learn from conditioning, the question is whether or not conditioning evokes mental representations in animals. In other words, do animals have cognition in the same way that humans do? o One type of learning that seems to separate humans and other animals is learning via language. Through language, we can learn about things we’ve never experienced. Classical Conditioning – Pavlov Little Albert – How Watson learned to traumatize babies Classical Conditioning o Unconditioned Stimulus (US) = the stimulus that triggers the UR (e.g., the food) o Unconditioned Response (UR) = unlearned response to a stimulus (e.g., salivating)
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o Conditioned Stimulus (CS) = the stimulus that triggers the response after learning (e.g., the bell) o Conditioned Response (CR) = learned response to a stimulus that otherwise would not cause the behavior (e.g., salivating upon hearing the bell) Other Examples o When toilets flush, shower water gets hot. US – hot water
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course PSYC 2000 taught by Professor Munson during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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Intro to Psych, Module 23 - Learning: Module 23 What is...

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