C_TAKS_Biology_Review

C_TAKS_Biology_Review - Biology TAKS Review Ecology Ecology...

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Biology TAKS Review
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Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Organisms that make food are autotrophs . Organisms that cannot make food and feeds on others are heterotrophs . Feeds only on plants is an herbivore . Eat other heterotrophs are carnivores . Scavengers eat animals that have already died. Decomposers break down dead and decaying plants and animals.
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Food Chains A food chain is a simple model to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. Each organism in a food chain represents a feeding step, or trophic level . A food web , shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level. The total energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is ten percent all the rest of the energy is given off as heat . berries mice black bear
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Biological Magnification
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Symbiosis The relationship between organisms of different species is called symbiosis . When both species benefit it is called mutualism . Commensalism is where one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited. When one species benefits at the expense of another species is called parasitism. Predation is found in all ecosystems and includes organisms that eat plants and animals.
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Succession The orderly, natural changes and species replacements in the communities of an ecosystem is succession . The colonization of barren land by communities of organisms is called primary succession . Secondary succession is the sequence of changes that takes place after an existing community is severely disrupted in some way.
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Carrying Capacity The number of organisms that an environment can support is its carrying capacity . Density-dependent factors include disease, competition, predators, parasites, and food. Density-independent factors can affect all populations, regardless of their density. Carrying capacity
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Natural Selection Evolution is the change in populations over time. Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits is called artificial selection . Natural selection is a mechanism for change in populations. (SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST) It occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce, and pass their variations to the next generation.
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Adaptations An adaptation is any variation that aids an organism’s chances of survival in its environment. Mimicry is a structural adaptation that enables one species to resemble another species. Another subtle adaptation is camouflage , an adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings.
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Evidence Fossils provide a record of early life and evolutionary history. Structural features with a
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course CHEM idk taught by Professor All during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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C_TAKS_Biology_Review - Biology TAKS Review Ecology Ecology...

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