Three_Canons_of_Rhet - Strategies First Canon Appeals i Ethos t Logos t Pathos Logos rational appeal Text presents and develops ideas through

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Unformatted text preview: Strategies First Canon: Appeals i Ethos t Logos t Pathos Logos: rational appeal Text presents and develops ideas through specific examples and/or details. t The audience can see the rationality, the logic, the reasonableness of comprehending and accepting these ideas. i Ethos: ethical appeal i Text appeals to the audience by showing the writer to be a credible person. t The writer is someone who is knowledgeable, trustworthy , and has the individual’s best interests in mind. Pathos: emotional appeal a t t Text appeals to the audience by drawing on their emotions and interests, directly or indirectly. They will be sympathetically inclined to accept and “buy” into his/her central ideas and arguments. Connects to psychological aspects of rhetoric. Second Canon: Arrangement Selecting t Marshalling t Organizing ideas to achieve meaning, purpose, and effect Questions to ask… t t Is there some section that clearly lets the reader know what subject the text is about and what the writer’s purpose? If so, where does this section begin and end? Is there an answer to the central question or an indication of the text’s central argument? Is there a part that explains any background information that the reader needs to know in order to be able to understand the central question or argument? t If so, where does this section begin and end? Does the writer employ a deductive (general to specific, thesis to evidence) or inductive (specific to general, evidence to thesis) approach to the argument? t Why? Does the writer provide transitional words or phrases that connect the different parts of the text? Do these words or phrases suggest that the writer is continuing and adding on to the material already presented, t showing the material following a certain part is a result of what came earlier, or t contrasting what comes later with what appeared earlier? Is there some sentence or paragraph that focuses the reader’s attention on some particular issue, aspect, or theme that the text will examine, in contrast to others that it might? Is there a sentence that suggest the course that the remainder of the text will take? t What is the effect? Is there some section that purposefully sets out material in support of the text’s answer to the central question or its argument? Do you detect any of the following methods of development: t t relating anecdotes or longer stories describing scenes and evoking sensory images defining terms and concepts dividing the whole into parts t classifying the parts according to some principle, or providing cause-and-effect reasoning? Is there a part that examines possible objections to the answer, argument, or supporting material? t If so, where does this section begin and end? t Is there language that suggests the writer wants to counter/refute the objections? Does some language suggest that the writer wants to concede the objections? Is there a sentence or section where the writer specifically answers the “so what” question? Is there a direct charge to readers to think or act in a new way after reading the text, or does the writer imply new ways of thinking and acting? What does the writer do with the words, phrases, and sentences in this section to give the text a sound of finality? Third Canon: Style t t Art of producing sentences and words that make a favorable impression on the audience Analysis of style contributes to the text’s meaning, purpose, effect, and appeals to the audience Involves diction, syntax, schemes, and tropes Stylistic Devices Diction Imagery Detail Language (figurative) Syntax Schemes Devices that involve stylistically effective alterations of word order antithesis t a balancing of two opposites. It may be a grammatical construction, or one character may be the antithesis of another. juxtaposition the placement of two things side-byside for the purposes of comparison and analysis parallelism t t refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. A famous example of parallelism begins Charles Dickens’s novel A Tale of Two Cities: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity….” acts as an organizing force to attract the reader’s attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide a rhythm. repetition t the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern. When repetition is well done, it links and emphasizes ideas while allowing the reader the comfort of recognizing something familiar. Argumentation Terms rebuttal Opposition to an argument or assertion concession An acknowledgement of objections to a proposal refutation t goes against a previous statement answering an attack on your assertions Trope Any artful deviation from the typical or expected way a word or idea is expressed Tropes t t t t t Metaphor Analogy Simile Understatement (litotes) Irony Paradox allusion a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. t Allusions can be historical (referring to Hitler), literary (referring to Scout in To Kill a Mockingbird), religious (referring to Noah’s Ark), or mythical (referring to Zeus). extended metaphor (conceit) a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work. Types of metaphors t Metonymy - the use of one word for another that it suggests. For example, a man keeps a good table (rather than serves good food). Synecdoche - a metaphor in which a part of something is substituted for the whole. For example, all hands on deck (rather than all sailors on deck). paradox a statement that appears to be selfcontradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. (e.g. “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.”) rhetorical question t A question used by the speaker or writer to achieve an awareness in the listener or reader. No reply is expected. sarcasm stating the opposite of an intended meaning especially to mock or ridicule t sometimes bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something; sometimes in jest t not all ironic statements are sarcastic, that is, intending to ridicule satire t t A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions or conventions for reform or ridicule. Satire can be recognized by the many devices used effectively by the satirist, such as irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm. Effective satire is thought-provoking and insightful about the human condition. understatement a presentation of something as less significant than it actually is. t Understatement is the opposite of hyperbole. t Litotes – understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary, as in “not bad at all.” (meaning good) ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course ENGLISH idk taught by Professor Idk during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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